Earth, Energy & Environment
Received: 01 Jun 2018 , Published: 03 June 2018
Views: 44 , Download: 28
|1||Barhm Abdullah Mohamad|
Oil has been used for lighting purposes for many thousands of years. In areas where oil is found in shallow reservoirs, seeps of crude oil or gas may naturally develop, and some oil could simply be collected from seepage or tar ponds.
Historically, we know the tales of eternal fires where oil and gas seeps ignited and burned. One example is the site where the famous oracle of Delphi was built around 1,000 B.C. Written sources from 500 B.C. describe how the Chinese used natural gas to boil water.
It was not until 1859 that "Colonel" Edwin Drake drilled the first successful oil well, with the sole purpose of finding oil. The Drake Well was located in the middle of quiet farm country in northwestern Pennsylvania, and sparked the international search for an industrial use for petroleum.
These wells were shallow by modern standards, often less than 50 meters deep, but they produced large quantities of oil. In this picture of the Tarr Farm, Oil Creek Valley, the Phillips well on the right initially produced 4,000 barrels per day in October, 1861, and the Woodford well on the left came in at 1,500 barrels per day in July, 1862.
With the appearance of automobiles and more advanced consumers, it was necessary to improve and standardize the marketable products. Refining was necessary to divide the crude in fractions that could be blended to precise specifications. As value shifted from refining to upstream production, it became even more essential for refineries to increase high-value fuel yield from a variety of crudes. From 10-40% gasoline for crude a century ago, a modern refinery can get up to 70% gasoline from the same quality crude through a variety of advanced reforming and cracking processes.
Chemicals derived from petroleum or natural gas, and petrochemicals are an essential part of the chemical industry today. Petrochemistry is a fairly young industry; it only started to grow in the 1940s, more than 80 years after the drilling of the first commercial oil well.
With increasing consumption and ever-increasing conventional and Unconventional resources, the challenge becomes not one of availability, but of sustainable use of fossil fuels in the face of rising environmental impacts, that range from local pollution to global climate effects.
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Web online sources and references that have been used in compiling this book:
• Schlumberger Oilfield Glossary http://www.glossary.oilfield.slb.com/
• Statoil, Fact sheet Njord
• International Energy Agency (IEA) -Key World Energy Statistics 2012
• Wikipedia http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Main_Page
• Oklahoma State, Marginal Well Commission, Pumper's Manual
• Natural Gas Supply Association. See Natural Gas - From Wellhead to
Burner Tip http://www.naturalgas.org/naturalgas/naturalgas.asp
• US geological survey: http://www.usgs.gov/
• US Department of Energy: http://www.doe.gov/
• NORSOK Standards, Standards Norway (SN),
• UK Offshore Operators Association (UKOOA) – For Students
• National Biodiesel Board http://www.biodiesel.org/
• PBS – Public Broadcasting Service - Extreme Oil
• The Story of Oil in Pennsylvania
• Air Liquide Gas Encyclopedia http://encyclopedia.airliquide.com/encyclopedia.asp