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Differences in Academic Performance Among Low-Grade Elementary School Students Before and During the COVID-19 Pandemic in Indonesia: A Literature Review

Volume: 140  ,  Issue: 1 , January    Published Date: 15 January 2024
Publisher Name: IJRP
Views: 97  ,  Download: 55 , Pages: 665 - 673    
DOI: 10.47119/IJRP1001401120246002


# Author Name
1 Mochamad Wahyu Anami
2 Ahmad Suryawan


The World Health Organization (WHO) officially declared Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) as a global pandemic, triggering significant changes across various sectors of global society. The COVID-19 pandemic has had a profound impact on the realms of education and the economy worldwide. In Indonesia, Circular Letter Number 3 of 2020 for Educational Units and Number 36962/MPK.A/HK/2020 regarding the Implementation of Education during the COVID-19 Emergency period stipulated the adoption of online learning for all formal education levels in the country. The effects of offline and online learning on the academic performance of primary school students, particularly during the COVID-19 pandemic, have been significant. Offline learning, which involves face-to-face interaction between students and instructors, allows for Q&A sessions with teachers without being hindered by internet connectivity issues. However, it has drawbacks such as the lack of adherence to pre-established schedules and transportation costs. On the other hand, online learning, implemented as a preventive measure during the pandemic, has been challenging for students. It has led to stress, decreased motivation, and a decline in academic performance. It was revealed that a large part of students encountered multiple issues during online learning, and there were cases of students failing to meet the Minimum Completion Criteria (KKM) set by the school. Additionally, the shift to online learning has affected the education sector in Indonesia, with students facing difficulties in accessing materials and experiencing reduced motivation, leading to decreased performance. These challenges highlight the significant impact of the COVID-19 pandemic on the academic performance of primary school students and the need to address the issues associated with both offline and online learning systems.


  • academic performance
  • COVID-19
  • Indonesia
  • primary school