Architecture & Civil Engineering

Architecture & Civil Engineering

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Underground Support System Determination: A Literature Review

Volume: 83  ,  Issue: 1 , August    Published Date: 23 August 2021
Publisher Name: IJRP
Views: 62  ,  Download: 31 , Pages: 55 - 68    
DOI: 10.47119/IJRP100831820212185


# Author Name
1 Rio Aditomo Mahardika Putra


Research on underground structure has been carried out by many researchers from around the world in order to create an underground space that can ensure the safety of its users. One thing that must be considered in the underground structure is the support system which has objective to control the deformation of rock mass caused by stress distribution during or after the underground construction process. This literature review describes the distinction of supporting elements according to their characteristics and functions in a support system. The selection of supporting elements by empirical approach and finite element method will also be discussed in this paper. Grout injection and grout bolt are support elements that function as reinforcement. Friction bolt and mechanical point anchor serve to hold whilst mesh, straps, steel set, shotcrete and concrete lining serve to retain loose rock from falling. Both empirical approach and finite element method have its own strengths and weaknesses in determining the support system and therefore must be used together to produce a safe design according to the geological conditions of the project site. This article tries to help the contractors, engineers and designer in selecting appropriate support system in order to ensure safety of its users.


  • underground structure
  • support system
  • rock mass classification
  • finite element analysis