Biology and Life Sciences
Received: 15 Nov 2018 , Published: 22 November 2018
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Schistosomiasis also known as Bilharziasis or snail fever is a common intravascular trematode infection most common in developing regions of Africa and Asia. Five major species of parasitic trematodes of the family Schistosomatidae including Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma intercalatum, Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni, and Schistosoma mekongi. Over 200 million people, almost all of them in developing countries, suffered from Schistosomiasis which is associated with economic losses, and frequently interferes with development projects. The disease is endemic in most African countries where up to one-third of school age children may be actively infected. Hence this study was aimed to assess the distribution and pattern of Schistosomiasis. 600 urine/stool sample each were examined from 600 persons were a clean, pre-labelled screw-capped plastic container were distributed with instructions to collect urine or stool. The samples were immediately transported to diagnostic laboratory for examination. The overall number of people infected with Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni or other intestinal parasites was 162(27.0%) and 84(14.0%) respectively. The results also shows that age group 6-15 years has the highest infection rates of 92(43.6%) and 36(17.1%) of male infected with Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni or other intestinal parasites while 18(21.7%) and 12(14.5%) of female infected with Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni or other intestinal parasites respectively. Followed by age group 16-25 with 34(20.8%) and 23(14.1%) number of male infected with Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni or other intestinal parasites, while 10(13.2%) and 3(3.9%) of female infected with Schistosoma haematobium and Schistosoma mansoni or other intestinal parasites respectively. It is recommended that the control of snail intermediate host and the infective stage (cercariae) would in no doubt reduce the rate of transmission, thereby reducing the prevalence of infections. It was then concluded that Schistosomiasis among the study area was highly prevalent. Therefore, routine treatment, diagnosis and surveillance of the disease should be done by community-based organization to reduce the menace.
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