Biology and Life Sciences

Biology and Life Sciences

Plague: A zoonotic disease, wiping out many civilizations.

Pages: 10  ,  Volume: 15  ,  Issue: 1 , October   2018
Received: 01 Nov 2018  ,  Published: 08 November 2018
Views: 179  ,  Download: 0


# Author Name
1 Haleema Sadia
2 Mah rukh Qmabrani
3 Imrani Ali Sani
4 Ayesha Alam
5 Shahid Raza


Plague is affecting human being for centuries. It is a zoonotic infection caused by gram negative bacteria Yersinia pestis. Yersinia pestis has different virulence determinants which aid in its proliferation including several proteins such as plasminogen activator which breaks blood clots and allows bacteria to reach distant sites and F1 capsular antigen forms a gel like capsule for protection against immune system. Culturing bacteria, staining procedures such as gram stain, Giemsa stains and other techniques including PCR and fluorescent antibody staining are used. Suspected individuals should start the course of antimicrobial drugs including streptomycin and tetracyclines until the diagnostic tests confirm plague, as it can be fatal for the patients. No FDA approved vaccines are available due to their ineffective property of short-term protection and adverse reactions. Prevention can be followed by observing hygienic conditions such as isolation of individuals with pneumonic plague, flea repellents and reduced interaction with diseased animal. Despite Pakistan is located in plague infested geographical zone but no cases have been reported yet. Vaccines with long term protection and less or no side effects should be produced so that any future outbreaks can be prevented.


  • PCR
  • References

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