Biology and Life Sciences

Biology and Life Sciences

Cholera: Water Borne Disease: A Review

Pages: 9  ,  Volume: 15  ,  Issue: 1 , October   2018
Received: 30 Oct 2018  ,  Published: 08 November 2018
Views: 11  ,  Download: 0

Authors

# Author Name
1 Haleema Saadia
2 Iqra Mujeeb
3 Arifa Tahir
4 Ayesha Alam
5 Shahid Raza

Abstract

Cholera is pandemic and food and water borne disease caused by bacteria named Vibrio cholera. It is an intestinal disease which is mainly identified by severe diarrhea and vomiting. It is transmitted through food and water contaminated with Vibrio cholera. Vibrio cholera is found on crustaceans, copepods, plants surfaces etc. which spread from waters for the search of food and leave the organism there. Here it causes disease by contaminating the food and water.  This bacterium has many serotypes but O1 and O139 is mainly known to be the causing agents of cholera disease. The disease is simply treated with ORS (Oral Rehydration Solution), a solution or may be powder form to mix in specific amount, recommended by WHO. The disease can also be treated by antibiotics. The origin of cholera is thought to be Ganges Delta region (in Asia). Vibrio bacteria attack on the small intestinal wall and secrete its toxin ‘CTX’ also called as Cholera toxin. This toxin is the virulence factor of cholera. This toxin is the constituent of phage which make the non-infected Vibrio cholera an infected bacterium. The infected bacterium must acquire VPI (Vibrio Pathogenicity Island) which contain a gene required for attachment with the mucosa of small intestine. In Pakistan, serotype O1 and O139 cause endemic cholera. Cholera spreads because of unsafe water supply and contaminated food as well as ignoring hygienic conditions. This disease can be controlled if sanitary conditions are kept in balance.

Keywords

  • cholera; vibrio cholera; O1; O139; cholera toxin
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