Medicine, Health & Food

Medicine, Health & Food

Join as an Editor/Reviewer


Volume: 116  ,  Issue: 1 , January    Published Date: 06 January 2023
Publisher Name: IJRP
Views: 54  ,  Download: 30 , Pages: 164 - 171    
DOI: 10.47119/IJRP1001161120234407


# Author Name
1 Evelyn
2 Andrianto
3 Mahrus A Rahman


Background: Rheumatic Heart Disease (RHD) is still a significant cause of cardiovascular morbidity and death in developing countries like Indonesia. However, despite being one of the most preventable chronic diseases, RHD still receives less attention, especially in Southeast Asia. PJR that is not treated immediately can develop into chronic heart failure. When heart failure has entered the stage of congestive heart failure, there is activation of a complex network of metabolic, immune, and characteristic neurohormonal factors that can result in cachexia. Cachexia can be an indicator of decreased survival in patients with chronic heart failure due to RHD. Objective: To determine the relationship between cachexia and clinical outcomes of chronic heart failure due to RHD at RSUD Dr. Soetomo.   Methods: This study was an analytic observational study using a retrospective cohort design. Data were collected by taking secondary data in the form of patient medical records. There were 106 patients who were taken by non-probability sampling technique. Correlation was determined using Mann-Whitney test and Chi-square test.   Result: A total of 106 patients consisted of 53 people with cachexia and 53 people without cachexia, represented both groups dominated by female (57.6%), with largest age range was late adulthood (36-45 years) in both groups (32.1%). Education level data mostly came from secondary schools with a total of 71 people (66.9%) in both groups. The most common type of valve lesion in both groups was mitral stenosis (53.7%). The frequency of hospitalization in patients with cachexia was more frequent with an average of 1.25 times compared to patients without cachexia with an average of 1.02 times. Mortality was higher in patients with cachexia as many as 7 per 53 people (0.13%) compared to patients without cachexia as many as 3 per 53 people (0.06%). With Mann-Whitney and chi-square tests, it was found that cachexia had no effect on the hospitalization frequency (p=0.453) and mortality (p=0.319).   Conclusion: Clinical outcomes in chronic heart failure patients due to RHD with cachexia are found to be higher in hospitalization frequency and mortality compared to patients with no cachexia.


  • mortality
  • cachexia
  • chronic heart failure
  • rheumatic heart disease
  • hospitalization frequency