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Sytematic Review: The Effect of Plumbum and Zinc on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

Volume: 92  ,  Issue: 1 , January    Published Date: 06 January 2022
Publisher Name: IJRP
Views: 173  ,  Download: 123 , Pages: 188 - 205    
DOI: 10.47119/IJRP100921120222646

Authors

# Author Name
1 Mohammad Ladrang Pramushinto Paramanindhito 
2 Yunias Setiawati 
3 Mira Irmawati
4 Citrawati Dyah Kencono Wungu

Abstract

Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) is a mental disorder characterized by a lack of attention, and/or hyperactivity-impulsivity and is related to the growth and development of one's functions in carrying out social life at home and school. Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD) can be diagnosed in patients aged 6-18 years. The cause of ADHD is still not known for certain, but there are several factors that are considered to be the cause of ADHD, namely genetic factors, biological factors such as brain development, active neurotransmitter factors, psychosocial factors, trauma factors, family factors, emotional factors or children's temperament, and environmental factors. Environmental factors can include exposure to chemicals, exposure to heavy metals, exposure to toxins, nutrition, and childbirth complications. Pb is a heavy metal and toxin can cause ADHD symptoms. Zn is a compound that when levels in the body are reduced, it can cause ADHD symptoms. Pb and Zn substances are predisposing factors for ADHD. The aim from this study is to determine the effect of Pb and Zn on Attention-Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder. Studies was conducted through 4 e-databases, namely PubMed, ScienceDirect, Scopus, and SpringerLink. The literature quality assessment was carried out using the NOS (Newcastle-Ottawa Scale). From 1124 citations, we identified 20 relevant articles consisting of 4 cohort studies, 12 case-control studies, and 4 cross sectional studies. There are 14 studies discussing Pb exposure, 4 studies discussing Zn deficiency, and 2 studies discussing both on ADHD symptoms. Exposure to Lead (Pb) has been shown to have an effect on ADHD symptoms especially the type of hyperactivity and impulsivity and zinc (Zn) deficiency has been shown to affect ADHD symptoms especially the inattention type.

Keywords

  • adhd
  • plumbum
  • lead
  • zinc