Medicine, Health & Food

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Pulmonary Functions between Active and Passive Smoking in 18-22 Years Old Male Physical Education Students ? A Descriptive Study

Volume: 91  ,  Issue: 1 , December    Published Date: 22 December 2021
Publisher Name: IJRP
Views: 537  ,  Download: 334 , Pages: 147 - 156    
DOI: 10.47119/IJRP1009111220212576


# Author Name
1 Hayati
2 Billy Emir Rizkanto
3 Santika Rentika Hadi
4 Achmad Nuryadi
5 Ridha Amalia


To assess and describe the vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and the ratio of FEV1/FVC measurements in smoking male physical education students, ranged between 18 - 22 years. Also compare the FEV1 and ratio of FEV1/FVC between active and passive smoker. A cross-sectional study was applied on male physical education students (n=30) who undergo training for 2 months and between the age range of 18-22 years old. The lung VC, FVC, FEV1, and ratio of FEV1/FVC were measured and compared between active and passive smokers. Thirty male physical education students participated in this study with the average age of 19,53 ? 0,86 years old. All participants underwent training for 2 months in Surabaya. The average BMI was 23,16 ? 4,624. The active to passive smoker ratio was 7:3, with 21 active smokers and 7 passive smokers. The results of all pulmonary function tests in passive smokers were better than in active smokers. The average of VC in passive smokers was 3,45? 0,498, slightly higher than VC in active smokers which was 3,35 ? 1,032. The FVC average in passive smoker was 3,56 ? 0,489, also higher than active smoker with 3,43 ? 0,671. The higher FEV1 mean was in passive smoker with 1,84 ? 0,856, compared to active smoker with 1,53 ? 0,595. Similar results also could be seen in FEV1/FVC ratio. The FEV1/FVC ratio average in passive smokers was 2,39 ? 5,094, higher than those in active smokers with 0,60 ? 0,205. In this study, the total participants with normal results were higher in passive smoker which was 3 (33,333%) participants, and only 1 (4,761%) in active smoker. For moderate COPD, active smoker was higher with 3 (14,286%) participants, while passive smoker with moderate COPD was 2 (22,222%) participants. The amount of severe COPD was high in active smokers with 13 (61,905%) participants, and only 1 (11,111%) in passive smokers. Meanwhile the active smoker with very severe COPD was 4 (19,047%) participants, and in the passive smoker was 3 (33,333%) very severe COPD. Active and passive smokers have an equally greater risk of lung tissue damage. Most of the free radical (OH-) in cigarette will arrive at the alveolus that can damage the lungs while smoking cigarettes in active smoker or inhale cigarette smoke in passive smoker.


  • smoker
  • passive smoker
  • active smoker
  • smoker
  • physical education students
  • pulmonary function test
  • FEV1/FVC
  • FEV1
  • FVC
  • VC