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Pulmonary Functions between Active and Passive Smoking in 18-22 Years Old Male Physical Education Students – A Descriptive Study

Volume: 91  ,  Issue: 1 , December    Published Date: 22 December 2021
Publisher Name: IJRP
Views: 61  ,  Download: 35 , Pages: 147 - 156    
DOI: 10.47119/IJRP1009111220212576


# Author Name
1 Hayati
2 Billy Emir Rizkanto
3 Santika Rentika Hadi
4 Achmad Nuryadi
5 Ridha Amalia


To assess and describe the vital capacity (VC), forced vital capacity (FVC), forced expiratory volume in one second (FEV1), and the ratio of FEV1/FVC measurements in smoking male physical education students, ranged between 18 - 22 years. Also compare the FEV1 and ratio of FEV1/FVC between active and passive smoker. A cross-sectional study was applied on male physical education students (n=30) who undergo training for 2 months and between the age range of 18-22 years old. The lung VC, FVC, FEV1, and ratio of FEV1/FVC were measured and compared between active and passive smokers. Thirty male physical education students participated in this study with the average age of 19,53 ± 0,86 years old. All participants underwent training for 2 months in Surabaya. The average BMI was 23,16 ± 4,624. The active to passive smoker ratio was 7:3, with 21 active smokers and 7 passive smokers. The results of all pulmonary function tests in passive smokers were better than in active smokers. The average of VC in passive smokers was 3,45± 0,498, slightly higher than VC in active smokers which was 3,35 ± 1,032. The FVC average in passive smoker was 3,56 ± 0,489, also higher than active smoker with 3,43 ± 0,671. The higher FEV1 mean was in passive smoker with 1,84 ± 0,856, compared to active smoker with 1,53 ± 0,595. Similar results also could be seen in FEV1/FVC ratio. The FEV1/FVC ratio average in passive smokers was 2,39 ± 5,094, higher than those in active smokers with 0,60 ± 0,205. In this study, the total participants with normal results were higher in passive smoker which was 3 (33,333%) participants, and only 1 (4,761%) in active smoker. For moderate COPD, active smoker was higher with 3 (14,286%) participants, while passive smoker with moderate COPD was 2 (22,222%) participants. The amount of severe COPD was high in active smokers with 13 (61,905%) participants, and only 1 (11,111%) in passive smokers. Meanwhile the active smoker with very severe COPD was 4 (19,047%) participants, and in the passive smoker was 3 (33,333%) very severe COPD. Active and passive smokers have an equally greater risk of lung tissue damage. Most of the free radical (OH-) in cigarette will arrive at the alveolus that can damage the lungs while smoking cigarettes in active smoker or inhale cigarette smoke in passive smoker.


  • smoker
  • passive smoker
  • active smoker
  • smoker
  • physical education students
  • pulmonary function test
  • FEV1/FVC
  • FEV1
  • FVC
  • VC