Medicine, Health & Food
Received: 16 Dec 2018 , Published: 23 December 2018
Views: 63 , Download: 36
|1||Barii Hafidh Pramono|
|2||Aryani Atiyatul Amra|
The medical management for epilepsy sufferers is to control generated seizures therefore not repeatedly occur using long-term anti-seizure medicines. Long-term treatment of epilepsy will potentially cause side effects, one of which is often used is valproate acid (VPA). It is known that VPA has ocular effects such as color perception disorders.
This study was prospective, observational analytic using cross sectional study method. Subjects were girl patients with a diagnosis of pediatric epilepsy who received VPA monotherapy at Universitas Sumatera Utara Hospital and Network Hospital.
From 35 subjects with average age of 11 years old, using wilcoxon signed rank test, found the significance value 0,0001* therefore there was effect significantly on subjects on color perception disorder. The most type of color perception disorders found was tritan with slightly severity. Based on the duration of VPA, using fisher's exact test, the significance value was 0.021* so that there was a significant effect of color perception disorders. Based on the doses of VPA, using fisher's exact test, the significance value was 0.334 so that there was no effect between the dose of VPA and color perception disorder.
There was a significant effect between the duration of VPA used on color perception disorders, there was no significant effect between the dose of VPA on color perception disorders, and the most type of color perception disorders was tritan.
Keywords : Valproate acid, Epilepsy, Color Perception
- CDC. Targeting Epilepsy Improving the Lives of People One of The Nation’s Most Common Neurological Conditions. At a Glance. 2011; 1-4.
- Verrotti A, Lobefalo L, Priolo T, Rapinese M, et al. Color Vision in Epileptic Adolescents Treated with Valproate and Carbamzepine. Elsevier Science 2004; 13:411-417.
- Sorri L, Rissanen E, Mantyjarvi M, Kalviainen R. Visual Function in Epilepsy Patients Treated with Initial Valproate Monotheraphy. Elsevier Science 2005; 14:367-370.
- Hilton EJR, Hosking SL, Betts T. The Effect of Antiepileptic Drugs on Visual Performance. Elsevier Science 2004; 13:113-128.
- Field, AP, & Hole, GJ. How to design and report experiments. London: Sage Publications, 2003.
- Kundart JJ, Citek K. Comparison of Farnsworth and Lanthony D-15 Color-Vision Tests to a Computerized Color-Vision Cap Rearrangement Test. American Academy of Optometry annual meeting; 2006.
- Pandey N, Chandrajar AK, Garg ML. Test for Color Vision Deficiency: Is It Time to Revise The Standards?. Indian J Ophthalmol 2015; 63:752-753.
- Dain SJ. Clinical colour vision tests. Clin. Exp. Optom. 2004; 4:276–293.
- Birch J. Pass rates for the farnsworth D15 colour vision test. Ophthal Physiol J. 2008; 28:259-264.
- Cruz EM, Cerdana HGS, Cabrera AMB, Garcia CB, et al. Prevalence of Color-Vision Deficiency Among Male High-School Students. Philippine Journal of Ophthalmology 2010; 35:1, pg.20-24.
- Foutch B, Lakshminarayanan V, Stringham JM. A New Quantitave Technique for Grading Fransworth D-15 Color Panel Test. Journal of modern optics ifirst USA. 2011; (11)1-9.
- Hovis JK, Muntz A. Simulating Color Vision Deficiencies on Clinical Tests with a Blue Light. Optometric Education 2013; 38(2)/ winter-spring.
- Nousiainen I, Kalviainen R, Mantyjarvi M. Color vision in epilepsy patients treated with vigabatrin or carbamazepine monotherapy. Ophthalmology J 2000; 107, 884-888.
- Ozkul Y, Gurler B, Uckardes A, Bozar S. Visual Functions in Epilepsy Patients on Valproate Monotherapy. J Clin Neurosci 2002; 9:247-50.
- Aktas Z, Cansu A, Erdogan D, et al. Retinal Ganglion Cell Toxicity Due to Oxcarbazapine and Valproic Acid Treatment in Rat. Seizure J Elsevier Ltd 2009; 18 396-399.
- Verrotti A, Manco R, Matricardi S, Franzoni E, Chiarelli F. Antiepileptic Drugs and Visual Function. Pediatr Neurol 2007; 36:353-360.
- Iraha S, Hirami Y, Ota S, Sunagawa GA, et al. Efficacy of Valproic Acid for Retinitis Pigmentosa Patients: A Pilot Study. Japan Clinical Ophthalmology J 2016; 10,1375-1384.
- Goto Y, Taniwaki T, Shigematsu J, Tobimatsu S. The Long Term Effects of Antiepileptic Drugs on The Visual System in Rats: Electrophysiological and Histopathological Studies. Clin Neurophysiol J 2003; 114:11395-4402. ?
- Hilton EJ, Hosking SL, Betts T. The Effect of Antiepileptic Drugs on Visual Performance. Seizure J 2004; 13:113-128. ?
- Lobefalo L, Rapinese M, Altobelli E, et al. Retinal Nerve Fiber Layer and Macular Thickness in Adolescents with Epilepsy Treated with Valproate and Carbamazepin. Epilepsia J 2006; 47(4):717-719.