Earth, Energy & Environment

Earth, Energy & Environment


Pages: 12  ,  Volume: 51  ,  Issue: 1 , April   2020
Received: 29 Apr 2020  ,  Published: 01 May 2020
Views: 72  ,  Download: 29


# Author Name
1 Sampson, Lovely M.
2 Bassey, Uwakmfon L.
3 Njoku, P. C.
4 Essien, Ekemini S
5 Anyanwu, J. C.


This paper focused on determining the status and quality of groundwater sources in the urban region of Ikot Abasi Local Government Area of Akwa Ibom State. The physicochemical parameters of the groundwater sources were analyzed in the laboratory and their spatial variations were presented. The physicochemical parameters analyzed were temperature, colour, odour, pH, Total Dissolve Solids, electrical conductivity, turbidity, total alkalinity, total hardness, salinity, dissolved oxygen, chemical oxygen demand, chlorides, nitrates, phosphates, sulphates, sodium, potassium, magnesium, calcium, biological oxygen demand and heavy metals. The results of the laboratory analysis showed that the groundwater Temperature ranged from 28.1 - 29.6°C, TDS (13.9 - 295ppm), Turbidity (0.02 - 5.24 NTU), pH (4.18 - 7.2), EC (19.6 – 416 µS), Salinity (18.5 - 201ppt), Total hardness (12.2 – 117.25mg/l), DO (0.1 - 5.23mg/l), COD (0.12 - 8.37 mg/l), BOD (0.13 - 5.13mg/l), Alkalinity (0.07 – 1.49mg/l), Chlorides (0.02 - 0.5mg/l), Nitrates (0.02 - 72.3 mg/l), Phosphates (0.21 - 53.1mg/l), Sulphates (0.5 – 50mg/l), Sodium (1 - 83.2ppm), Potassium (1.3 - 22.3ppm), Magnesium (4.5 - 60mg/l), Calcium (5 – 200mg/l). The results of the physicochemical parameters of the groundwater were compared with water quality standards from the World Health Organization (WHO) and Bureau of Indian Standards (BIS), and variations revealed that the water was not potable. The data obtained were also subjected to Water Quality Index to determine the quality of groundwater of the study area. The value obtained was 82.95, which indicated a very poor water quality.


  • Groundwater; physiochemical parameters; water quality
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