Biology and Life Sciences

Biology and Life Sciences

Pre and Post - Harvest Losses of Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) In Batticaloa District, Sri Lanka; Preliminary Investigation of the Causes

Pages: 8  ,  Volume: 43  ,  Issue: 1 , December   2019
Received: 31 Dec 2019  ,  Published: 16 January 2020
Views: 208  ,  Download: 116


# Author Name
1 A.K hasith Priyashantha
2 Krishanthiny K
3 Mahendranathan C


The cashew nut industry has great economic importance in developing countries like Sri Lanka, and in the local and global market. However, the market price per kilogramme of the nuts reveals, the demand for cashew nut and the gap between need and the production. Though, Batticaloa is one of the major districts for cashew production in Sri Lanka, no studies have been undertaken to estimate the postharvest losses and the causes of such losses. Hence, a survey was conducted to find out the possible reasons for pre and post-harvest losses of cashew nut and cashew-apple in Batticaloa district. The survey was conducted in five Divisional Secretariat (DS) with 95 individual questionnaires. The semi-structured questionnaires were carried out through opportunistic non-random sampling (Convenience sampling) method, interviewing cashew farmers, cashew nut and apple sellers. Key informant interviews and field verification were also conducted during this study.  Descriptive statistics and the one- way ANOVA were used to analyse the data, statistically. The study revealed that the average production of cashew nut /tree/year is 8.63 kg. The unorganized orchards, poor cultural practices, old heterogeneous population of trees and poor or low yielding varieties are some of the major reasons for poor yield. Also, 15% of loss occurs due to the natural enemies, including parrots, bats etc. Further, the results showed that poor harvesting, drying and storing practices also contribute to the postharvest losses. The survey revealed that the majority of the farmers discard the cashew apple after collecting the nuts. Hence, awareness on management of cashew plantations and proper pre and post-harvesting practices are some of the vital aspects to enhance the cashew industry. In addition, improve the value-added products of cashew apple could also lead to have better economic returns to the local industries.


  • Cashew Nut and Apple; pre and postharvest management practices; value-added products
  • References

    Abeysinghe, D.C., Sangakkara', U.R. and Jayasekera, S.J.B.A. (2003). Intercropping of Young Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) and It’s Effects on Crop Productivity and Land Utilization. Tropical Agricultural Research, 15, 10-19.

    Adeigbe, O. O., Adewale, B. D., Muyiwa, A. A., Olasupo, F. O., Olaniyi, O. O., Adenuga,O. O., Williams, O. A. and Aliyu, O. M. (2016).  Quantitative Descriptors of Cashew Nut Categories in Nigeria: Providing Indices for Superior Nut Selection. ARPN Journal of Agricultural and Biological Science, 11 (4), 142-148.  

    Adeigbe, O. O., Olasupo, F. O., Adewale, B. D., and Muyiwa, A. A. (2015). A Review on Cashew Research and Production in Nigeria in the Last Four Decades. Scientific Research and Essays, 10 (5), 196–209.

    Akinwale, T. O. (2000). Cashew Apple Juice: It’s Use In Fortifying The Nutritional Quality Of Some Tropical Fruits. European Food Research and Technology, 211(3), 205–207.

    Athapattu, A. M. H. K., Fernando, A. P. S., Ginigaddara, G. A. S., and Wijethunge, P. M. A. P. K. (2013). Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) Market Channel Analysis in Puttalam District, Sri Lanka. Undergraduate Research Symposium, 201, 19.

    Azam-Ali, S., and Judge, E. (2001). Small-Scale Cashew Nut Processing. Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, (Schumacher Centre for Technology and Development), 1–70. Retrieved from: (Accessed on 12 august 2019).

    Balogoun, I., Ahoton, E.L., Saïdou, A., Bello, O.D., Ezin, V., Amadji, G.L., Ahohuendo, B.C., Babatoundé, S., Chougourou, D.C, and Ahanchede, A. (2016). Effect of Climatic Factors on Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) Productivity in Benin (West Africa). Journal of Earth Science and Climatic Change, 7 (1), 1-10.

    Das, I., and Arora, A. (2017). Post-Harvest Processing Technology for Cashew Apple – A Review. Journal of Food Engineering, 194, 87-98.

    Das, I., Shah, N. G., and Kumar, G. (2014). Cashew Nut Quality As Influenced By Microwave Heating Used for Stored Grain Insect Control. International Journal of Food Science, 2014, 1–7.

    Dendena, B., And Corsi, S. (2014). Cashew, From Seed to Market: A Review. Agronomy for Sustainable Development, 34,753–772.

    Eang, R., and Tippayawong, N. (2018). Optimization of Process Variables for Drying of Cashew Nuts by Superheated Steam. Cogent Engineering, 5 (1), 1–13.

    Eradasappa, E., and Mohana, G. S. (2016). Role of Pollination in Improving Productivity of Cashew – A Review. Agricultural Reviews, 37 (1), 61-65.

    Ganesh, S., Kannan, M., and Jawaharlal, M. (2015). Cashew Industry - An Outlook. ISHS Acta Horticulturae, 1080, 89–95.

    Ginigaddara, G.A.S., Fernando, A.P.S., and Wijethunga, P. M. A. P. K. (2016). Technical Feasibility of Coconut (Cocos nucifera) Cashew (Anacardium occidentale) Intercropping System in Puttalam District, Sri Lanka. International journal of Advanced Scientific Research and Management, 1 (10), 79-85.

    Gyedu-Akoto, E., Lowor, S. T., Assuah, M., Kumi, W and Dwomoh, E. A. (2014). Assessment of Post-Harvest Handling Effects on Quality of Cashew Nuts and Kernels in Ghana. Journal of Scientific Research and Reports, 3 (7), 953–965.

    Honorato, T. L., Rabelo, M. C., Gonçalves, L. R. B., Pinto, G. A. S., and Rodrigues, S. (2007). Fermentation of Cashew Apple Juice To Produce High Added Value Products. World Journal of Microbiology and Biotechnology, 23 (10), 1409–1415.

    Jayasekera, S. B. J. A. and Jayasekera, N. E. M. (2003). Cashew Cultivation: Principles and Techniques. Sri Lanka Cashew Corporation. Nugegoda.

    Karthickumar, P., Sinija, V. R., and Alagusundaram, K. (2014). Indian Cashew Processing Industry-An Overview. Journal of Food Research and Technology, 2 (2), 60-66.

    Mandal, R. C. (2000). Cashew Production and Processing Technology. Annis Offset Printers. New Delhi.

    Mohod, A., Jain, S., and Powar, A. G., (2011). Cashew Nut Processing: Sources of Environmental Pollution and Standards. BIOINFO Environment and Pollution, 1 (1), 5-11.

    Monteiro, F., Catarino, L., Batista, D., Indjai, B., Duarte, M. C., and Romeiras, M. M. (2017). Cashew as a High Agricultural Commodity in West Africa: Insights towards Sustainable Production in Guinea-Bissau. Sustainability, 9 (9), 1- 14.

    Muthu Kumar, S., Ponnuswami, V. and Padmadevi, K. (2015). Cashew Industry in India. ISHS Acta Horticulturae. 1080, 97-10.

    Ogunsina, B. S. (2013). Crackability and Chemical Composition of Pre-Treated Cashew Nuts Using a Hand-Operated Knife Cutter. Agricultural Engineering International: CIGR Journal, 15 (2), 275–283.

    Rico, R., Bulló, M., and Salas-Salvadó, J. (2016). Nutritional Composition of Raw Fresh Cashew (Anacardium occidentale L.) Kernels from Different Origin. Food Science and Nutrition, 4 (2), 329–338.

    Runjala, S., and Kella, L. (2017). Cashew Apple (Anacardium occidentale L.) Therapeutic Benefits, Processing and Product Development: An Over View. The Pharma Innovation Journals, 6 (7), 260–264.

    Sahu, K.R and Sharma, D. (2008). Management of Cashew Stem and Root Borer, Plocaederus ferrugineus L. By Microbial and Plant Products. Journal of Biopesticides, 1(2), 121 – 123.

    Senguttuvan, T., and Mahadevan, N. R. (1999). Prophylactic Control of Stem and Root Borer (Plocaederus ferrugineus) In Cashew (Anacardium occidentale). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences, 69 (2), 163–165.

    Sri Lanka Cashew Corporation: Annual Report and Account. (2015). Retrieved from: (Accessed on 05 May 2019).

    Sri Lanka Cashew Corporation: Annual Report and Account. (2016). Retrieved from: (Accessed on 05 May 2019).