Biology and Life Sciences

Biology and Life Sciences

Forest Landscapes and IUCN Red List Species in the Communities of Lower Racha

Pages: 7  ,  Volume: 39  ,  Issue: 2 , October   2019
Received: 02 Nov 2019  ,  Published: 04 November 2019
Views: 166  ,  Download: 10


# Author Name
1 Tamar Khardziani
2 Roman Maisuradze


Mountain forest landscapes are important storages of biological diversity, upon which heavily depend local communities, to receive ecosystem services that are fundamental for living, including fuel, food, and clean water. Mountain forests also provide environmental goods and services such as carbon storage and non-wood forest products. Ecosystem services are the benefits people obtain from ecosystems, and their change influence human well-being. Fragile vegetation cover makes mountain areas vulnerable to environmental degradation. Mountain landscapes are amongst the most vulnerable areas to climate change. Georgia is amongst the fifteen most mountainous countries of the world, where climate change and natural hazards are causes of environmental degradation. Communities of the Central Caucasus largely depend on the services provided by the forest ecosystems. Our study area, Lower Racha, is part of the Caucasus ecoregion. The Caucasus is also recognized as one of the biodiversity hotspots of the world out of twenty-five. Some dominant tree species of Lower Racha are incorporated into the data of the IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. Even though the natural forest cover is still present in the study area, there are climate-driven problems of forest land degradation and also overlapped land-use interests, which require the application of the holistic approach in nature conservation and community development. In line with this, the maps of forest types and forest species by communities, which are represented in the paper, can be useful instruments and additional sources of information for strategic decision making.


  • Forest landscapes; Tree species; Lower Racha
  • References

    Assembly, U. G., 2012. The Future we want (Resolution adopted by the General Assembly on 27 July 2012), The United Nations, 53.

    Elizbarashvili, M., Khardziani, T., Maisuradze, R., Tatishvili, M., 2018. Mountain environment and population in Georgia: case study of Upper Svaneti, International Journal of Sustainable Development & World Ecology, 25(4), 362-370.

    Hoffmann, M., Brooks, T. M., Da Fonseca, G. A. B., Gascon, C., Hawkins, A. F. A., James, R. E., Silva, J. M. C., 2008. Conservation planning and the IUCN Red List, Endangered Species Research, 6(2), 113-125.

    Ketskhoveli, N., 1959. The vegetation of Georgia, Tbilisi: Publishing House of Georgian Academy of Sciences.

    Khardziani, T., 2019. The Impact of Natural Hazards on the Agricultural Landscapes of Mestia Municipality, In Mountains in the Changing World (MoChWo 2019).

    Khardziani, T., Elizbarashvili, M., Maisuradze, R., Bilashvili, K., Seperteladze, Z., Khuntselia, T., Aleksidze, T., 2017. Mountain regions, population, and their ecological problems: Case study of Mestia municipality, Journal of Environmental Biology, 38(5), 1057-1060.

    Khardziani, T., Maisuradze, R., Elizbarashvili, M., 2018. MOUNTAINOUS MUNICIPALITIES OF CENTRAL CAUCASUS, ECOSYSTEM DIVERSITY AND COMMUNITIES. International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference: SGEM: Surveying Geology & mining Ecology Management, 18, 557-564.

    Kvachakidze, R., 2014. Restoration of Georgia's mountain forests, Tbilisi: "Sachino".

    Maisuradze, R., Elizbarashvili, M., Khardziani, T., Tatishvili, M., 2018. LANDSCAPES OF SAMTSKHE-JAVAKHETI REGION, TRANSFORMATION DEGREE AND FORMS. International Multidisciplinary Scientific GeoConference: SGEM: Surveying Geology & mining Ecology Management, 18, 487-494.

    Millennium Ecosystem Assessment, 2005. Ecosystems and Human Well-being: Synthesis, Washington, DC: Island Press.

    Myers, N., Mittermeier, R. A., Mittermeier, C. G., Da Fonseca, G. A., Kent, J., 2000. Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities, Nature, 403(6772), 853.

    Olson, D. M., Dinerstein, E., Wikramanayake, E. D., Burgess, N. D., Powell, G. V., Underwood, E. C., Loucks, C. J., 2001. Terrestrial Ecoregions of the World: A New Map of Life on Earth, A new global map of terrestrial ecoregions provides an innovative tool for conserving biodiversity, BioScience, 51(11), 933-938.

    Price, M., Gratzer, G., Alemayehu Duguma, L., Kohler, T., Maselli, D., 2011. Mountain Forests in a Changing World: Realizing Values, Addressing Challenges, Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations (FAO) and Centre of Development and Environment (CDE).

    Salukvadze, E., Chaladze, T., Khardziani, T., Gogidze, K., 2017. Present Landscapes and Their Ecological States in the Ore Mining Region of Chiatura, Earth, 6(5-1), 8-16.

    Summit, E., 1992. Agenda 21, The United Nations program for action from Rio.

    Veith, C., Shaw, J., 2011. Why invest in sustainable mountain development?