Social Sciences & Psychology
Received: 11 Oct 2019 , Published: 17 October 2019
Views: 200 , Download: 98
|1||Shaib Emmanuel Oluwatobi|
|2||Anyanwu Angela Amaka|
Tourism has become a thriving national business in the Gambia and the country has had a fair share of the good and ills of tourism. These experiences include an improvement in the quality of infrastructure and revenue generation and the accompanying worrisome development of sex tourism in the Gambia and because of the level of poverty and illiteracy in the country. Tourism is a platform for the projection and preservation of culture and a good source of foreign exchange. Therefore, this paper examines how culture can be packaged into tourism to improve the nation’s economic and national development in the country. Recommendations were made on ways to rebrand cultural tourism to achieve economic development and cultural preservation.
- Anuario de Estadísticas Culturales (AEC) (2016). Madrid: Ministerio de Educación, Cultura y Deporte de España.
- Alessandro Duranti 2015. The Anthropology of Intentions: Language in a World of Others. Cambridge, UK: Cambridge University Press.
- Aref, F. Gill, S. and Farshid, A. (2010). Tourism Development in Local Communities: As a Community Development Approach, Journal of American Science, 6(2), 155 – 161.
- Arnott, R., De Palma, A., & Lindsey, R. (1993). A structural model of peak-period congestion: A traffic bottleneck with elastic demand. The American Economic Review, 83(1), 161–179.
- Aziza, R.C. 2001. "The Relationship between Language use and Survival of Culture: the case of Umobo youth". Nigerian Language Studies. No.4.
- Bronfnbrenner, U., & Morris, P. (1998). The ecology of developmental processes. In W. Damen (Ed.), Handbook of child psychology (5th ed., vol. 1.). New York: Wiley.
- Brons, M., Pels, E., Nijkamp, P., & Rietveld, P. (2002). Price elasticities of demand for passenger air travel: A meta-analysis. Journal of Air Transport Management, 8(3), 165–175.
- Brown, H. D. (2000). Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy (2nd). London: Longman.
- Burns, P. (1999) An Introduction to Tourism and Anthropology. London: Routledge.
- Corder, S. P. (1983). Strategies of communication. In C. Faerch & G. Kasper (Eds.), Strategies in inter-language communication (pp. 15–19). London, UK: Longman.
- Cultural impact. Retrieved online 13th Sept, 2019 from www.tourismconcern.org.uk/
- D.C. Gilbert,. “Conceptual issues in the meaning of tourism”. In C.P. Cooper (ed.), Progress in Tourism, Recreation and Hospitality Management, Vol. 2. (London: Pitman Publishing, 1990).
- Fafunwa, A.B. 1974. History of Education in Nigeria. London: George Allen and Unwin.
- Fyanka, B. B. & Nwoko, K. C. (2015). Culture and tourism in modern Africa: An overview. In Kenneth C. Nwoko & Omon M. Osiki (Eds) Dynamics of culture and tourism in Africa. ISBN: 978-978-949-920-5. Illishan Remo: Babcock University Press.
- Ghuman, P. (1997) Assimilation or integration? A study of Asian adolescents. Educational Review, 39, 23–35.
- Gillen, D., Morrison, W., & Stewart, C. (2003). Air travel demand elasticities: Concepts, issues and measurement. Ottawa: Government of Canada.
- Gustafson, P. (2012). Managing business travel: Developments and dilemmas in corporate travel management. Tourism Management, 33(2), 276–284.
- Hall, C. (1998): Historical antecedents on sustainable development: new labels on old bottles?, In Sustainable Tourism: A Geographical Perspective (C.M. Hall and A.A. Law, eds), Longman.
- Hall, C. M. (2008). Tourism planning: Policies, processes and relationships. London: Pearson Education.
- Hinch, T., & Butler, R. (1996). Indigenous tourism: A common ground for discussion. In R. Butler & T. Hinch (Eds.), Tourism and indigenous peoples, (pp. 321), London: International Thomson Business Press.
- Hinkel, E. (1999). Introduction: Culture in research and second lanugage pedagogy. In E. Hinkel (Ed.), Culture in Second Language.
- Holloway, J. and Taylor, N. (2006). The business of tourism. 1st ed. Harlow: Financial Times Prentice Hall.
- Kramsch, C. (1998). Language and Culture. Oxford: Oxford University Press.
- Lindberg K, Johnson R (1997)The economic values of tourism’s social impacts. Annals of Tourism Research24(1): 90-116.
- Longhurst, Brian, Smith, Greg, Bagnall, Gaynor, Crawford, Garry and Michael Ogborn, Introducing Cultural Studies, Second Edition, Pearson, London, 2008, ISBN 978-1-4058-5843-4
- McKercher, B. (1993) Some Fundamental Truths about Tourism: Understanding Tourism's Social and Environmental Impacts, Journal of Sustainable Tourism, 1(1), 6-16.
- Ogechukwu, C. U., Benjamin, C., Ann, O. (2014). The effects of globalization on African culture: The Nigerian perspective. IOSR Journal of Business and Management (IOSR-JBM) e-ISSN: 2278-487X, p-ISSN: 2319-7668. Volume 16, Issue 4. Ver. I (Apr. 2014), PP 62-71. Retrieved online 8th June, 2019 from www.iosrjournals.org
- OECD. (2009). The impact of culture on tourism. Paris: OECD
- Przeclawski, K. (1993) Tourism as a subject of interdisciplinary research. In Tourism Research: Critiques and Challenges. Pearce D. and Butler, R. eds. pp. 9-19. London: Routledge.
- Reisinger, Y. (1994). Tourist-Host Contact as a Part of Cultural Tourism. World Leisure and Recreation, 36 (Summer), 24-28.
- Richards, G. (2001). Cultural attractions and European tourism. Wallingford: CABI.10.1079/9780851994406.0000.
- Robinson, P., Lück, M. and Smith, S. (2013). Tourism. 1st ed. Wallingford, Oxfordshire: CABI.
- Sharpley, R. (1994) Tourism, Tourists & Society. Cambridgeshire: ELM Publications.
- Shweder, Richard A. 2007. “A True Culture War.” The New York Times 10/27/07.
- Smith, V. (1989) Hosts and Guests: The Anthropology of Tourism, 2nd ed. Philadelphia: Univ. Pennsylvania Press.
- Smith, M. (2009). Issues in cultural tourism studies. 2nd ed. London: Routledge.
- Sustainable Tourism Alliance (2015). Negative Socio-Cultural Impacts from Tourism. Retrieved online 13th June, 2019 from https://www.sustainabletourismalliance.net/negative-socio-cultural-impacts-from-tourism/
- Swarbrooke, J., & Horner, S. (2001). Business travel and tourism. Oxford: Routledge.
- The Gambian Tourism Act, Tourism Regulations, 2011
- The Gambian Tourism Board Act
- The Gambian Tourism Offences Act, 2003
- Tsoudis, O. (2001) The portrayal of crime in the Cypriot media: An exploratory study. Western Criminology Review, 3(1), 1-46
- UNICEF (2003), Study on the sexual abuse and exploitation of children in the Gambia, the Gambia
- UNICEF (2004), Child trafficking in the Gambia: a situation analysis, Mission of technical support of the Regional Office for West and Central Africa to UNICEF of the Gambia, UNICEF West and Central Africa regional office
- UNWTO. (2016). World tourism organization annual report 2016. Madrid: United Nations World Tourism Organization.
- Vygotsky, L. S. (1962). Thought and language. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press.
- W. Hunziker, and K. Krapf, The Outline of General Tourism Science (Zürich: Polygraphischer Verlag 1942).
- Xiang, Y. (2013). The characteristics of independent Chinese outbound tourists. Tourism Planning and Development, 10(2), 134–148.