Earth, Energy & Environment
Received: 28 Apr 2018 , Published: 06 May 2018
Views: 110 , Download: 46
|1||Uzoegbu, M. U|
Palynological analysis of some of the samples indicated that the sediments of upper Cretaceous is of Late Maastrichtian in age due to the abundance of Spinizoncolpites baculatus and Lonapertites marginatus species, with co-occurrence of typical Late Maastrichtian dinoflagellate cysts assemblage, such as, Dinogymnium acuminatum, Senegalinium sp., Andalusiela sp. and Paleocystodinium sp. The shale-limestone facies association is interpreted as sediments from a lagoon / swamp, mixed tidal flat and shoreface to shallow marine shelf environments. Petrological analysis of the limestones shows that the limestones consist of allochemical biosparites or bioclastic packstones and grainstones. The textural and mineralogical characteristics of the limestones show that the limestones have undergone some diagenetic processes such as cementation, neomorphism, micritization, compaction and dissolution. Dolomitization is almost absent in the limestones. The shale-limestone facies association is interpreted as sediments from a lagoon / swamp, mixed tidal flat and shoreface to shallow marine shelf environments. The crossbedded sandstone suggests deposition in a moderate to high energy, upper shoreface shallow marine environment.
Adams, A.E. and MacKenzie, W.S. (2001), A colour atlas of carbonate sediments and rocks under the microscope. Manson Publishing, London, 180 p.
Adekoya, J.A., Aluko, A.F. and Opeloye, S.A. (2011), Sedimentological characteristics of Ajali Sandstone in the Auchi environs of Anambra basin, Nigeria. Ife J. Sci., 13(2): 52-67.
Akande, S.O., Ogunmoyero, I.B., Petersen, H.I.and Nytoft, H.P. (2007), Source rock evaluation of coals from the Lower Maastrichtian Mamu Formation, SE Nigeria. Jour. Petrol. Geol., 30(4), 303-324.
Chiaghanam, O.I., Nwozor, K.K., Chiadikobi, K.C., Omoboriowo, A.O., Soronnadi-Ononiwu, C.G., Onuba, L.N. and Ofoma, A.E. (2013), Lithofacies, Palynology and Paleoenvironmental Study of Early Campanian to Mid-Maastrichtian Deposits of Udi and Environs in the Anambra Basin, South Eastern Nigeria. International Journal of Science and Technology, 2(6), pp. 453 – 470.
Dunham, R.J. (1962), Classification of carbonate rocks according to depositional texture. In: Ham, W.E. (ed) Classification of carbonate rocks. American Association of Petroleum Geologist, Memoir 1, 108-121.
Ekwere, S.J., Esu, E.O., Okereke, C.S. and Akpan, E.B. (1994), Evaluation of Limestone in Obotme area, (Southeastern Nigeria) for Portland cement manufacture. Journal of Mining & Geology, 30 (2): 145 – 150.
Ephraim, B.E. and Odumodu, C.F.R. (2015), Petrological and geochemical studies with insight into the industrial prospects of the Upper Maastrichtian – Paleocene limestone deposits in parts of Southeastern Nigeria. Submitted to Comunicações Geológicas.
Folk, R.L. (1959), Practical petrographic classification of limestones. American Association of Petroleum geologist, Bulletin, 43, 1-38
Germeraad, J.H., Hopping, C.A. and Muller, J. (1968), Palynology of Tertiary sediments from tropical areas, Review of paleobotany and palynology, 6, pp. 1-18.
Ibe, K.K. and Ogezi, A.E. (1997), Chemical and industrial characteristics of the carbonate rock of the Late Maastrichtian Nsukka Formation in Ohafia Area of S.E Nigeria. 33rd Annual Conference. Nigerian Mining and Geosciences Society. Jos. 11
Ibe, K.K. and Ogezi, A.E. (1999), Chemical and Industrial Characteristics of the Carbonate Rocks of the Late Maastrichtian Nsukka Formation in Ohafia Area of Southeastern Nigeria. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences, 5 (2): 234 – 240
Kumaran, K.P.N and Rajshekhar, C. (1992), Foraminiferal linings’ from the Late Cretaceous to Paleocene sediments of Ohafia- Ozu Abam area. Nigeria. Current Science, Vol. 62(3): 311-313.
Mbuk, I.N., Rao, V.R., and Kumaran, K.P.N. (1994), The Upper Cretaceous-Paleocen boundary in the Ohafia –Ozu Abam area, Imo State, Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology, Vol 22, p. 105-113.
McKenzie, D. (1978), Some remarks on the Development of Sedimentary Basins. Earth and Planetary Sci. lett, Vol.40, p.25-32.
Mode, A.W. (2004), Ethology and paleoenvironmental significance of trace fossils from Cenomanian-Turonian sediments in the Upper Benue Trough. Nigeria. Journal of Mining and Geology, 29(2): 111—118.
Mode, A.W. and Odumodu, C.F.R. (2014), Lithofacies and Ichnology of the Late Maastrichtian –Danian Nsukka Formation in the Okigwe area, Anambra Basin, Southeastern Nigeria. Arabian Journal of Geosciences, ISSN 1866-7511.
Murat, R.C. (1972), Stratigraphy and Paleogeography of the Cretaceous and Lower Tertiary in Southern Nigeria. In: Dessauvagie, T.F.J., Whiteman, A.J. (Eds), African Geology. University of Ibadan Press, Nigeria, pp. 251-266.
Nwajide, C.S. (2005), Anambra Basin of Nigeria: Synoptic Basin Analysis as a Basis for Evaluation its Hdrocarbon Prospectivity, In Okogbue, C.O., (Ed.), Hydrocarbon potentials of the Anambra Basin, PTDF Chair, pp: 2-46.
Nwajide, C.S. and Reijers, T.J.A. (1996), The Geology of the Southern Anambra Basin, in: T.J.A. Reijers (ED.) selected chapter in Geology sedimentary geology and sequence stratigraphy of the Anambra Basin, SPDC publication, pp. 133-148.
Obaje, N.G., UlU, O.K. and Petters, S.W. (1999), Biostratigraphic and geochemical control of hydrocarbon prospect in the Benue Trough and the Anambra Basin, Nigeria NAPE Bill. 14, 1 pp 18-54.
Odumodu, C.F.R. and Ephraim, B. (2007), Paleoenvironmental analysis of the Nsukka Formation, using pebble morphometry. Nat. Appl. Sci. J 8(1): 73-84.
Odumodu, C.F.R., Ugwuonah, E.N. and Ephraim, B.E. (2015), Characterization of Diagenesis Processes of the Late Maastrichtian-Danian Limestone in Ohafia, Ozu Abam and Arochukwu Areas of South-eastern Nigeria. Journal of Natural Sciences Research. Vol 5. No 6.
Ogala, J.E., Ola-Buraimo, A.O. and Akaegbobi, I.M. (2009), Palynological and Palaeoevironmental study of the Middle-Upper Maastrichtian Mamu Coal facies in Anamabra Basin, Nigeria. World Applied Science Journal, 7 (12) pp. 1566-1575.
Ojoh, K.A. (1990), Southern part of the Benue Trough (Nigeria) Cretaceous stratigraphy, Basin Analysis, Pateo-oecanography and Geodynamic Evolution in the Equatorial domain of the South Atlantic NAPE Bull Vol, 7. P. 131-152.
Okon, O.S and Uzoegbu, M.U. (2015), Lithofacies, Petrology and Depositional Environment of Limestone in Ohafia–Ozu Abam Area in Southeastern Nigeria. Pyrex Journal of Geology and Mining Research, 1(1), pp. 007-017.
Onuigbo, E.N., Okoro, A.U. and Etu- efeotor, J.O. (2012), Lithofacies, palynology and facies Association: Keys to paleogeographical interpretation of the Enugu and the Mamu Formations of Southeastern Nigeria. Journal of Environment and Earth sciences, (2(5), pp 13-23.
Onuigbo, E.N., Etu- Efeotor, J.O. and Okoro, A.U. (2012), Palynology, paleoenvironment and sequence stratigraphy of the Campanian- Maastrichtian deposits in the Anambra Basin, Sout eastern Nigeria. European Journal of Scientific Research, 78(3), pp. 333-348.
Onyekuru, S.O and Iwuagwu, C.J. (2010), Depositional environment and sequence stratigraptic interpretation of the Campano- Maastrictitianm Nkporo stale group and mamu formation exposure at leru Okigwe axis, Anamra Basin, southeastern Nigeria Australian journal of Basin, and applied science, 4(12), pp 6623-6640.
Oti, M.N. (1983), Petrology, Diagenesis and Phosphate Mineralization of Cretaceous Limestone in the Arochukwu/Ohafia area, Southeast Nigeria. Nig. J. Min. Geol. Vol. 20(1&2): p 95-103
Petters, S.W. (1978), Stratigraphy C. Evolution of the Benue Trough and its implication for the Upper Cretaceous Paleogeography of West Africa. Journal of Geology. P. 78,311 – 312.
Reijers, T.J.A., Petters, S.W. and Nwajide, C.S. (1997), The Niger Delta Basin, in Selley, R.C., ed., African Basins--Sedimentary Basin of the World 3: Amsterdam, Elsevier Science, pp. 151-172.
Reyment, R.A. (1965), Aspects of the Geology of Nigeria. University of Ibadan Press, Nigeria,