Biology and Life Sciences
Received: 17 Aug 2019 , Published: 20 August 2019
Views: 149 , Download: 74
High cost of fishmeal used in broiler diets often challenges profit margin of boiler production. Hence, researchers are more focused on evaluating alternative animal protein sources to cut down the feed cost which accounts for 60 to 75% of the total production cost. In this context, sprat-head meal (SHM) was studied to partially replace fishmeal in broiler finisher diet. Sixty-four Lohmann Indian River broiler chicks were divided into four groups with two replicates for each. For the first 21 days, chicks were fed with Prima broiler starter ration. Finisher basal diet was formulated using 5% fishmeal (SHM0) to have 18.9% crude protein (CP) and 2 990.8 kcal/kg of metabolizable energy. Experimental diets were prepared by replacing 25% (SHM25), 50% (SHM50) and 75% (SHM75) of fishmeal in the basal diet. All the birds were fed with the finisher diet from 22 to 42 d. At the end of the study, live weight (LW), average weight gain (AWG), average daily gain (ADG), dressing percentage (DP), feed intake, FCR, viability, European Production Efficiency Factors (EPEF) and European Broiler Index (EBI) were estimated. Results showed that there was not any difference (P>0.05) in LW, AWG, ADG, DP, FCR, EPEF and EBI of the birds among the treatments. Mean LW when birds entered finisher phase at 21 d was 806±3.2 g. AWG at the finisher phase (22 to 42 d) were: SHM0, 1 107 g; SHM25, 1 097 g; SHM50, 1 055 g and SHM75, 1 048 g. Overall ADG of the birds were: SHM0, 52.7 g/bird; SHM25, 52.2 g/bird; SHM50, 50.3 g/bird and SHM75, 49.9 g/bird. DP ranged from 60.7% to 71.8%. Average FCR during the finisher phase were: SHM0, 2.8; SHM25, 2.8; SHM50, 2.9 and SHM75, 2.9. Overall mean EPEF and EBI of the groups were 416 and 201 respectively. As the dietary replacement of fishmeal did not cause any differences in the productive performances of broiler chicken, SHM can be used to replace 75% of fishmeal (w/w) without challenging the production performances of broiler chicks.
Al-Marzooqi, W., Al-Farsi, M. A., Kadim, I. T., Mahgoub, O and Goddard, J. S. (2010). The Effect of Feeding Different Levels of Sardine Fish Silage on Broiler Performance, Meat Quality and Sensory Characteristics under Closed and Open-sided Housing Systems. Asian-Aust. J. Anim. Sci. 23(12):1614-1625.
Aviagen, (2019). Indian River/Indian River FF: Broiler performance objectives. https://thepoultrysite.com/news/2019/05/new-2019-broiler-performance-objectives-and-nutrition-specifications-aviagen
Awoniyi, T. A. M., Adebayo, I. A and Aletor, V. A. (2004). A study of some erythrocyte indices and bacteriological analysis of broiler chickens raised on maggot-meal based diets. International Journal of Poultry Science, 2, 386–390.
Bhamare, K.S., Dildeep, V., Senthil, M.S. and Chavan, S.J. (2016). Nutritive evaluation of cashew apple waste in broilers. Intern. J. Sci. Nat. 7, 629-632.
Biswas, A., Mohan, N., Raza, M., Mir, N.A and Mandal, A. (2019). Production performance, immune response and blood biochemical parameters in broiler chickens fed diet incorporated with prebiotics. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 103, 493–500. DOI: 10.1111/jpn.13042
Bostock, T.W., Kalavathy. M.H and Vijaynidhi, R. (1992). The processing and marketing of Anchovy in the Kanniyakumari District of South India Scope for development. Bay of Bengal Programme (BOBP/WP/85), Madras, India.
Brah, N., Houndonougbo, F.M and Issa, S. (2018). Grasshopper Meal (Ornithacris cavroisi) in Broiler Diets in Niger: Bioeconomic Performance. International Journal of Poultry Science, 17(3), 126-133. DOI: 10.3923/ijps.2018.126.133
Chen, T.C., Omar, S., Schultz, D., Dilworth, B.C and Day, E.J. (1987). Processing, Parts, and Deboning Yields of Four Ages of Broilers. Poultry Science, 66, 1334-1340.
Ferket, P.R and Gernat, A.G. (2006). Factors that affect feed intake of meat birds: A Review. International Journal of Poultry Science 5(10), 905-911.
Frempong, N.S., Nortey, T.N.N., Paulk, C and Stark, C.R. (2019). Evaluating the Effect of replacing fish meal in broiler diets with either Soybean meal or poultry by-product Meal on Broiler Performance and total feed cost per kilogram of gain. J. Appl. Poult. Res. 0:1–7. http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/japr/pfz049
Ginigaddarage, P.H., Surendra, I.H.W., Weththewa, W.K.S.R., Ariyawansa, K.W.S., Arachchi, G.J.G., Jinadasa, B.K.K.K., Hettiarachchi, K.S and Edirisinghe, E.M.R.K.B. (2018). Microbial and chemical quality of selected dried fish varieties available in Sri Lankan market. Sri Lanka J. Aquat. Sci., 23(1), 119-126. http://doi.org/10.4038/sljas.v23i1.7552
Hossain, M.H., Ahammad, M.U and Howlider, M.A.R. (2003). Replacement of fish meal by broiler offal in broiler diet. International Journal of Poultry Science, 2(2), 159-163.
Husvéth, F., Pál, L., Galamb, E., Ács, K.C., Bustyaházai, L., Wágner, L., Dublecz, F and Dublecz, K. (2015) Effects of whole wheat incorporated into pelleted diets on the growth performance and intestinal function of broiler chickens. Animal Feed Science and Technology, 210, 144–151. http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.anifeedsci.2015.09.021
Javeed, A and Mahendrakar, N. S. (1996). Growth and meat quality of broiler chicks fed with fermented fish viscera silage. International Journal of Animal Sciences, 11 (1): 1-5.
Khan, R. U., Durrani, F. R., Chand, N and Anwar, H. (2010). Influence of feed supplementation with Cannabis sativa on quality of broilers carcass. Pakistan Veterinary Journal, 30(1), 34–38.
Khan, S., Khan, R. U., Alam, W and Sultan, A. (2018). Evaluating the nutritive profile of three insect meals and their effects to replace soya bean in broiler diet. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 102, e662–e668. DOI: 10.1111/jpn.12809
Khan, S., Khan, R. U., Sultan, A., Khan, M., Hayat, S. U and Shahid, M. S. (2016). Evaluating the suitability of maggot meal as a partial substitute of soya bean on the productive traits, digestibility indices and organoleptic properties of broiler meat. Journal of Animal Physiology and Animal Nutrition, 100, 649–656. DOI: 10.1111/jpn.12419
Khosravinia, H., Azarfar, A and Sokhtehzary, A. (2015). Effects of substituting fish meal with poultry by-product meal in broiler diets on blood urea and uric acid concentrations and nitrogen content of litter. Journal of Applied Animal Research, 43:2, 191-195. DOI: 10.1080/09712119.2014.963085
Kocatepe, D and Çetiner, B. (2013). Changes in proximate composition of sprat (Sprattus sprattusphalericus, Risso 1826) fishmeal stored at different temperatures. Indian J. Anim. Res., 47(6), 551-554.
Kryeziu, A.J., Mestani, N., Berisha, Sh and Kamberi, M.A. (2018). The European performance indicators of broiler chickens as influenced by stocking density and sex. Agronomy Research 16(2), 483 491. https://doi.org/10.15159/AR.18.040
Liu, N., Wang, J.Q., Jia, S.C., Chen, Y.K and Wang, J.P. (2018).Effect of yeast cell wall on the growth performance and gut health of broilers challenged with aflatoxin B1 and necrotic enteritis. Poultry Science, 97, 477–484. http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pex342
Ljiljana, J., Brana, R., Marijana, V., Dragan, S., Radislava, T., Milutin, ? and Katarina, R. (2015). Effects of fish meal replacement by red earthworm (Lumbricus rubellus) meal on broilers’ performance and health. Acta Veterinaria-Beograd, 65(2), 271-286. DOI: 10.1515/acve-2015-0023
Marcu, A., Vacaru- I., Gabi, D., Liliana, P.C., Marcu, A., Marioara, N., Ioan, P., Dorel, D., Bartolomeu, K. & Cosmin, M. (2013). The Influence of Genetics on Economic Efficiency of Broiler Chickens Growth. Anim. Sci. Biotech. 46, 339-346.
Ministry of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources Development & Rural Economy. (2018). Fisheries Statistics 2018. Maligawatta, Colombo, Sri Lanka.
Mirnawati., Ciptaan, G and Djulardi, A. (2018a). The effect of palm kernel cake fermentation with Sclerotium rolfsii by adding humic acid in broiler diets. Indian J. Anim. Res., 52 (6), 882-886.
Mirnawati., Djulardi, A. and Ciptaan, G. (2018b). Effect of Fermented Palm Oil Sludge with Neurospora crassa Added to Rations on Broiler Production Performance. Pakistan Journal of Nutrition, 17 (10), 487-491. DOI: 10.3923/pjn.2018.487.491
Nakhon, S., Numthuam, S., Charoensook, R., Tartrakoon, W., Incharoen, P and Incharoen, T. (2019). Growth performance, meat quality, and bone-breaking strength in broilers fed dietary rice hull silicon. Animal Nutrition, 5, 152-155. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2018.11.003
Nkukwana, T., Muchenje, V., Masika, P., Hoffman, L., Dzama, K and Descalzo, A. (2014). Fatty acid composition and oxidative stability of breast meat from broiler chickens supplemented with Moringa oleifera leaf meal over a period of refrigeration. Food Chemistry, 142, 255–261. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2013.07.059
Ren, X. J., Yang, Z. B., Ding, X and Yang, C.W. (2018). Effects of Ginkgo biloba leaves (Ginkgo biloba) and Ginkgo biloba extract on nutrient and energy utilization of broilers. Poultry Science, 97, 1342–1351. http://dx.doi.org/10.3382/ps/pex445
Rodrigues, I and Choct, M. (2019). Feed intake pattern of broiler chickens under intermittent lighting: Do birds eat in the dark? Animal Nutrition, 5, 174-178. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2018.12.002
Sabour, S., Tabeidian, S.A and Sadeghi, G. (2019). Dietary organic acid and fiber sources affect performance, intestinal morphology, immune responses and gut microflora in broilers. Animal Nutrition, 5, 156-162. https://doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2018.07.004
Waldroup, P. W., van Walleghem, P., Fry, J. L., Chicco, C and Harms, R.H. (1965). Fish Meal Studies: 1. Effects of Levels and Sources on Broiler Growth Rate and Feed Efficiency. Poultry Science, 44 (4), 1012–1016. https://doi.org/10.3382/ps.0441012