Biology and Life Sciences
Received: 15 Jul 2019 , Published: 17 July 2019
Views: 96 , Download: 76
|1||Othow Mayik Awet Anyong|
|2||Mohammed Abdo Desogi|
|3||Yasir Yousif Abdalla|
|4||Magoub Suleiman Mohammedian|
This study was carried at northern Upper Nile State, Melut county, Paloch Oil Field Block (3&7) during the period 2015 - 2018. The main objective of the study was to investigate the impacts of oil produced water and drilling chemicals on natural environment in Paloch Oil Field (Block 3&7) Melut county- Upper Nile State – South Sudan. For data collection the area was divided into four strata as follows: Site1: area affected by produced water. Site2: area affected by Wells mud and cutting water. Site3: area affected by mining and drilling chemicals. Site4; area not affected by any factor (control area). The samples obtained were oil produced water, drilling mud and cutting water from well site, chemical yard water and control water (river Nile water). Also a questionnaire was prepared and distributed to stakeholders, community leaders, foresters, farmers, nomads and the oil company representative; and 80 respondents were interviewed (0,2% of total population), general observations were recorded and the water samples were analyzed. The study found that, large area of natural forest were uprooted and cleared felled for making ponds of oil produced water, all trees within the pond were dried up totally, agricultural and range lands have been converted into large ponds, holes (Pits), the life of native have been threaten by polluted and contaminated water. Chemical analysis of water samples revealed that, the percentage of Potassium element is very high in well site (99.8%) that is resulted from concentration of potassium chloride in drilling mud and cutting water, the percentage of Nitrogen were found high in the soil of site affected by oil produced water (78%). Also the mismanagement of drilling mud pit, oil produced water and chemical residuals increase the rate of oil related diseases, oil produced water areas are not fenced, chemical yard is not properly managed (gate is broken and chemicals are exposed to direct sun heat and rain water) Chemical containers are used by the ignorant native for carrying drinking water and milk. The study recommended that the oil produced water should be fence, treated and reinjected into oil wells also treated water can be used for irrigation of forest plantations for rehabilitation and restoration of affected sites. Hydrocarbon and heavy metals can be remediated by using bioremediation plants such (Phragmite Australia, Hibiscus cannabinus and Vetiveria zizanioides) chemical yard should be protected and maintain.
Bliss Matthew, (2014) Oil production in South Sudan : making it a benefit for all, Cordaid:
ECOS. (2006) Oil development, A preliminary investigation by the European Coalition on Oil in Sudan.
Hesperian (2018). Health Guide, illnesses from dust, A Community Guide to Environmental Health pages 476 to 480.
kharakas. (2005). The American Association of Petroleum Geologists /Division of Environmental Geosciences.
Laurance William F. (2010), Habitat destruction: death by a thousand cuts Oxford University Press.
Loro Emmanuel L. (2018), International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, Volume 8, Issue 10, October (2018), 206 ISSN 2250-3153
Matthew Bliss. (2014) Oil production in South Sudan, making it a benefit for all. Baseline assessment of the impact of oil production on communities in Upper Nile State.
Patey Luke A.. (2012) Lurking beneath the surface: Oil, environmental degradation, and armed conflict in Sudan, Danish Institute for International Studies. Online publication date: June 2012.
Pelz Daniel, (2017) NGO blames water pollution in S. Sudan on oil company
Ruland Greg (2017) The Harmful Effects of Petrochemicals on the Environment,
Sudan population and housing Census (2008)’, in Statistical Yearbook for Southern Sudan 2010, Southern Sudan Centre for Census, statistics and Evaluation, p 12
Thawes Trevor Hawes. (2017) Modern oil industry born in 1859 at Pennsylvania well firstname.lastname@example.org, Midland Reporter-Telegram
UNEP (2007): Environmental Issues. Post conflict Environmental Assessment. Internet,