Biology and Life Sciences

Biology and Life Sciences


Pages: 8  ,  Volume: 28  ,  Issue: 1 , May   2019
Received: 19 May 2019  ,  Published: 13 June 2019
Views: 85  ,  Download: 0


# Author Name
1 Haleema Sadia
2 Aziza Noor
3 Shahid Raza
4 Abrar Hussain
5 Ayesha Alam


Yellow fever is a viral infection, which is continuously causing disease in tropical regions such as America and Africa. The virus, which causes Yellow fever is called as flavivirus. YF predominantly distresses persons and cardinals. Infected mosquitoes are main source of transmission of YF. Vector of YF commonly called as yellow fever virus (YFV), can leads hazardous hemorrhagic and potentially fatal disease. There is great need of vaccination campaigns for appropriate control and prevention of this fatal disease. Major Outburst of this epidemic is mainly due to following reasons: (1) Aedes aegypti reinvasion: in area where urban settings are made (2) Rapid moving of rural people to urban areas (3) diminished Immunity in living organisms. Effective and modern vaccinations are available but more updated information is needed to target specific zones of world which are at high risk of YF. The target of this study was to estimate the Cause, life cycle, diagnosis, treatments of YF virus and to gather optimal control and prevention strategies. However, it is concluded that YF had been rapidly emerging and highly fatal disease in humans and non- human primates throughout the civilizations



  1. Azevedo, A. C. C., Porto, L. P. D. A., Silva, M. L., Martins, M. A., Avelar, R. S., Carvalho, A. T. D., ... & Martins, R. D. M. (2013). 17DD and 17D-213/77 yellow fever substrains trigger a balanced cytokine profile in primary vaccinated children.
  2. Bandzuh, J. T., Juran, L., Kolivras, K. N., & Wallis, A. B. (2017). Local perceptions of measures to control Aedes mosquitoes and mosquito-borne diseases in Puntarenas and San Jose, Costa Rica. Journal of Latin American Geography16(2), 139-162.
  3. Barnett, E, D. 2007. Yellow Fever: Epidemiology and Prevention. Emerging infections, 44: 850- 6.
  4. Beaty, B. J., Tesh, R. B., & Aitken, T. H. (1980). Transovarial transmission of yellow fever virus in Stegomyia mosquitoes. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene29(1), 125-132.
  5. Calkins, T. L., Woods-Acevedo, M. A., Hildebrandt, O., & Piermarini, P. M. (2015). The molecular and immunochemical expression of innexins in the yellow fever mosquito, Aedes aegypti: Insights into putative life stage-and tissue-specific functions of gap junctions. Comparative Biochemistry and Physiology Part B: Biochemistry and Molecular Biology183, 11-21.
  6. Conghaile, S. O. (2015). Yellow fever vaccine. Reactions1533, 447-10.
  7. Irimia, R. E., and Gottschling, M. (2016). Taxonomic revision of Rochefortia Sw.(Ehretiaceae, Boraginales). Biodiversity Data Journal, (4).
  8. Moreira-Soto, A., Torres, M. C., de Mendonça, M. L., Mares-Guia, M. A., dos Santos Rodrigues, C. D., Fabri, A. A., ... & Drosten, C. (2018). Evidence for multiple sylvatic transmission cycles during the 2016–2017 yellow fever virus outbreak, Brazil. Clinical Microbiology and Infection24(9), 1019-e1.
  9. Rosen, L. (1981). Transovarial transmission of arboviruses by mosquitoes (author's transl). Médécine tropicale: revue du Corps de santé colonial41(1), 23-29.
  10. Rosen, L. (1987). Overwintering mechanisms of mosquito-borne arboviruses in temperate climates. The American journal of tropical medicine and hygiene37(3_Part_2), 69S-76S.
  11. Wachkoo, A. A., & Bharti, H. (2014). First description of the worker caste of Nylanderia smythiesii (Hymenoptera: Formicidae). Biodiversity data journal, (2).