Biology and Life Sciences
Received: 19 May 2019 , Published: 13 June 2019
Views: 47 , Download: 0
Ebola hemorrhage fever is an endemic, zoonotic and viral disease of family filoviridae. It was first observed in remote villages in Central Africa, near tropical rainforests. Later it occurred in the village near river named Ebola. In West Africa the outbreaks of 2014-2016 ruined major urban areas as well as rural ones. Natural host of the virus is fruit bats and the incubation period is 2-21 days. Symptoms starts fever, headache, sore throat and muscle pain, impaired kidney and liver function. But it can proof fatal if untreated. The outbreak control relies on the prevention and control practices. The early supportive care improves the survival. There is no treatment yet identified but some new drug therapies are promised to be evaluated to decrease the risk. A vaccine rVSV-ZEBOV proofed effective against this infection. Moreover, there is no Ebola virus patient in Pakistan but still it is at higher risk of outbreak. A preventive measure such as proper hygiene is needed to reduce the risk. The purpose of this research is to spread awareness and discus the emergence of destructive and dangerous infection all over the world and how should we protect our country from this burning issue.
Briand S, Bertherat E, Cox P, Formenty P, Kieny MP, Myhre JK ... and Dye C (2014). The international Ebola emergency. New England Journal of Medicine, 371(13), 1180-1183.
Feldmann H, Nichol ST, Klenk HD, Peters CJ, and Sanchez A (1994). Characterization of filoviruses based on differences in structure and antigenicity of the virion glycoprotein. Virology, 199(2), 469-473.
Garbutt M, Liebscher R, Wahl-Jensen V, Jones S, Möller P, Wagner R, ... and Ströher U (2004). Properties of replication-competent vesicular stomatitis virus vectors expressing glycoproteins of filoviruses and arenaviruses. Journal of virology, 78(10), 5458-5465.
Geisbert TW, Pushko P, Anderson K, Smith, J, Davis KJ and Jahrling PB (2002). Evaluation in nonhuman primates of vaccines against Ebola virus. Emerging infectious diseases, 8(5), 503.
Gupta M, Mahanty S, Bray M, Ahmed R and Rollin PE (2001). Passive transfer of antibodies protects immunocompetent and immunodeficient mice against lethal Ebola virus infection without complete inhibition of viral replication. Journal of Virology, 75(10), 4649-4654.
Ito H, Watanabe S, Sanchez A, Whitt MA, and Kawaoka Y (1999). Mutational analysis of the putative fusion domain of Ebola virus glycoprotein. Journal of virology, 73(10), 8907-8912.
Jahrling PB, Geisbert TW, Johnson ED, Peters CJ, Dalgard DW and Hall WC (1990). Preliminary report: isolation of Ebola virus from monkeys imported to USA. The lancet, 335(8688), 502-505.
Khan H and Ahmad I (2015). Threat of Ebola virus disease for Pakistan. Gomal Journal of Medical Sciences, 12(3).
Ploegh HL (1998). Viral strategies of immune evasion. Science, 280(5361), 248-253.
Prins KC, Cárdenas WB, and Basler CF (2009). Ebola virus protein VP35 impairs the function of interferon regulatory factor-activating kinases IKKε and TBK-1. Journal of virology, 83(7), 3069-3077.
Rewar S and Mirdha D (2014). Transmission of Ebola virus disease: an overview. Annals of global health, 80(6), 444-451.
Rolison JJ and Hanoch Y (2015). Knowledge and risk perceptions of the Ebola virus in the United States. Preventive medicine reports, 2, 262-264.
Sanchez A, Trappier SG, Mahy BW, Peters CJ, and Nichol ST (1996). The virion glycoproteins of Ebola viruses are encoded in two reading frames and are expressed through transcriptional editing. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 93(8), 3602-3607.
Sanchez A, Yang ZY, Xu L, Nabel GJ, Crews T, and Peters CJ (1998). Biochemical analysis of the secreted and virion glycoproteins of Ebola virus. Journal of virology, 72(8), 6442-6447.
Schneider J, Gilbert SC, Blanchard TJ, Hanke T, Robson KJ, Hannan CM ... and Hill AV (1998). Enhanced immunogenicity for CD8+ T cell induction and complete protective efficacy of malaria DNA vaccination by boosting with modified vaccinia virus Ankara. Nature medicine, 4(4), 397.
Simmons G, Wool-Lewis RJ, Baribaud F, Netter RC and Bates P (2002). Ebola virus glycoproteins induce global surface protein down-modulation and loss of cell adherence. Journal of virology, 76(5), 2518-2528.
Ströher U, West E, Bugany H, Klenk HD, Schnittler HJ and Feldmann H (2001). Infection and activation of monocytes by Marburg and Ebola viruses. Journal of virology, 75(22), 11025-11033.
Sui J and Marasco WA (2002). Evidence against Ebola virus sGP binding to human neutrophils by a specific receptor. Virology, 303(1), 9-14.
Takada A, Fujioka K, Tsuiji M, Morikawa A, Higashi N, Ebihara H ... and Kawaoka Y (2004). Human macrophage C-type lectin specific for galactose and N-acetylgalactosamine promotes filovirus entry. Journal of virology, 78(6), 2943-2947.
Villinger F, Rollin PE, Brar SS, Chikkala NF, Winter J, Sundstrom JB ... and Peters CJ (1999). Markedly elevated levels of interferon (IFN)-γ, IFN-α, interleukin (IL)-2, IL-10, and tumor necrosis factor-α associated with fatal Ebola virus infection. The Journal of infectious diseases, 179(Supplement_1), S188-S191.
Volchkov VE, Becker S, Volchkova VA, Ternovoj VA, Kotov AN, Netesov SV and Klenk HD (1995). GP mRNA of Ebola Virus Is Edited by the Ebola Virus Polymerase and by T7 and Vaccinia Virus Polymerases1. Virology, 214(2), 421-430.
Volchkov VE, Volchkova VA, Mühlberger E, Kolesnikova LV, Weik M, Dolnik O and Klenk HD (2001). Recovery of infectious Ebola virus from complementary DNA: RNA editing of the GP gene and viral cytotoxicity. Science, 291(5510), 1965-1969.
Xu L, Sanchez A, Yang ZY, Zaki SR, Nabel EG, Nichol ST, and Nabel GJ (1998). Immunization for Ebola virus infection. Nature medicine, 4(1), 37.
Zaki SR, Shieh WJ, Greer PW, Goldsmith CS, Ferebee T, Katshitshi J ... and Khan AS (1999). A novel immunohistochemical assay for the detection of Ebola virus in skin: implications for diagnosis, spread, and surveillance of Ebola hemorrhagic fever. The Journal of infectious diseases, 179(Supplement_1), S36-S47.