Earth, Energy & Environment
Received: 16 Jan 2019 , Published: 31 January 2019
Views: 91 , Download: 0
A total of twelve water samples of six each were collected during the dry and wet seasons from six sampled localities (Akwa, Odogwa, Obite, Odagwa and Umuebulu) along Etche River. These were to determine the seasonal variation in the quality of surface water and level of pollution. The result of the physico-biogeochemical determination showed variations from one locality to another in both dry and wet seasons for Turbidity, Temperature, DO, TSS, TCC, P, N, Fe and Pb. The values of Conductivity, TDS, BOD, Cl, S, Bi- CO32-, THC were higher in dry season than wet seasons. The pH values ranged from 5.17-6.50 indicate that almost all the samples were slightly acidic in both seasons. The DO values of some samples are within WHO limit (7.5) whilst others are not. The high values of turbidity, temperature, TSS, TCC, P, N, Fe and Pb in the wet season could be attributed to the influx of sediments from inter-land and waste from dumpsite and human activities. The dilution from overland flow and run-off also attribute to the high values of P and N. Heavy metals concentrations in most of the sampled areas were found to fall below the safe limits of WHO except Fe that is slightly above the recommended limit. The biogeochemical parameter (TCC) in all the localities was higher than the limit for WHO, suggesting the possible contamination of bacteria from industry, human and animal wastes.
Aluyi, H.S.A et al, 2006: Effect of Human activities and Oil pollution on the microbiological and physicochemical quality of Udu river, Warn, Nigeria.Etud.Biol.v.28, n. 62, p. 35-43.
Amadi, P.A., Ofoegbu, C.O and Morrison, T. (1989), Hydrogeochemical Assessment of Groundwater Quality in parts of the Niger Delta, Nigeria. Environmental Geo/Water Science, Vol. 14, No 6, pp 195-205.
Chokor, B.A (1993): Government Policy and Environmental Protection in Developing World, Environment Management, Volume 17,Number l,pp.1 5-30.
Doust, H., and Omatsola, Eq., 1990, Niger Delta, in, Edwards, J. D., and Santogrossi, P.A., eds., Divergent/Passive Margin Basins, AAPG Memoir 48: Tulsa, American Association of Petroleum Geologists, p.239-248.
Etu-Efeotor, J. O. and Akpokodje, E. G., 1990. Aquifer systems of the Niger Delta. Journal Mm. Geol. Vol. 26, No.2, pp 279 -284.
IPCC, 1990. Strategies For Adaption To Sea Level Rise. Report of the Coastal Zone Management Subgroup, Response Strategies Working Group, 12p.
IPCC Report, 1992. Global Climate Change and the Rising Challenge of the Sea. Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change, Response Working Group, Coastal Zone Management Subgroup p. 19.
FGDC (Federal Geographic Data Committee), (2001). “National Spatial Data Infrastructure”.
Montgomery, C.W (2003): Environmental Geology (sixth edition). 554p. Mc Graw Hill Pub. Boston, USA.
Nigerian Coastal Erosion and Subsidence, 1991. Technical Report No. 1. Prepared for EEC/Nigerian Coastal Erosion Research Project. Ed. B.I.C Ijeoma. l37p.
Shannon, P. M., and Naylor N., 1989, Petroleum Basin Studies: London, Graham and Trotman Limited, p 153-169.
SPDC (2004): Groundwater monitoring at Edjeba restaurant SPDC-West. Final report for the Shell Petroleum Development Company of Nigeria Limited (unpublished). By Devine Concepts Integrated Services limited (DCISL)
Udom G., Etu-Efeotor, J., and Esu, E. (1999) Hydrogeochemical characteristics of groundwater in parts of Port Harcourt and Tai-Eleme Local Government Areas. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Science 5(5). P. 545-552.
Udom, G.J., Esu, J.O. and Ekwerre, S.J. (1998). Quality Status of Groundwater in Calabar Municipality, Sutheastern Nigeria. Global Journal of Pure and Applied Sciences. Vol. 4(2):163-169.
UNEP (1991): Fresh-Water Pollution, UNEP /GEMS Environment Library, No. 6,
UNU (1983): United Nations University Newsletter, 7(2), 9, Tokyo, Japan.
Weber, K. J., 1971: Sedimentological aspects of oil fields in the Niger Delta Geologie en Mijnbouw, vol. 50, p. 559-576.
World Health Organization (WHO), (2006). International Standards for Drinking Water and Guidelines for Water quality. World Health Organization, Geneva.