Biology and Life Sciences
Received: 07 Oct 2018 , Published: 07 October 2018
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Schistosomiasis also known as bilharzia is an infectious disease that a?ects more than 230 million people worldwide, according to conservative estimates. It is caused by trematode parasites of the genus Schistosoma; the adult male and female worms live within the veins of their human, where they mate and produce fertilized eggs. The eggs are either shed into the environment through faeces or are retained in host tissues where they induce in?ammation and then die. Five major species of parasitic trematodes of the family Schistosomatidae including Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma intercalatum, Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni, and Schistosoma mekongi. Over 200 million people, almost all of them in developing countries, suffered from Schistosomiasis which is associated with economic losses, and frequently interferes with development projects. The disease is endemic in most African countries where up to one-third of school age children may be actively infected. Hence this study was aimed to assess the distribution and pattern of Schistosomiasis. 600 stool sample were examined from 600 persons were a clean, pre-labelled screw-capped plastic container were distributed with instructions to collect stool. The samples were immediately transported to diagnostic laboratory for examination. Formal-ether concentration techniques was used to examine the stool. The overall number of people infected with Schistosoma mansoni was 83(14.0%). The results also shows that age group 6-15 years has the highest infection rates of 36(17.1%) of male infected with Schistosoma mansoni while 12(14.5%) of female infected with Schistosoma mansoni respectively. Followed by age group 16-25 with 23(14.1%) number of male infected with Schistosoma mansoni, while 3(3.9%) of female infected with Schistosoma mansoni respectively. It is recommended that the control of snail intermediate host and the infective stage (cercariae) would in no doubt reduce the rate of transmission, thereby reducing the prevalence of infections. It was then concluded that Schistosomiasis among the study area was highly prevalent. Therefore, routine treatment, diagnosis and surveillance of the disease should be done by community-based organization to reduce the menace.
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