Biology and Life Sciences
Received: 17 Sep 2018 , Published: 22 September 2018
Views: 124 , Download: 0
|1||Dr. Pukuma M.S|
This study was aimed at determine the prevalence of plasmodiasis on chickens at baga market, baga road Maiduguri, Borno State, Nigeria, A total of three hundred (300) blood sample of the chickens was collected at random from the study area. The blood sample was collected by puncturing the brachial (wing) vein of the chickens using sterile 26 gauge needle, the area, was picked and squeezed gently to obtain a large drop of blood. A thin blood films was prepared from each bird on ready -to- use thin film was spread using a smooth edge slide spreader using a grease pencil, slide was labeled with number for identification. The result showed that 64(21.3%), 17(5.7%), 14(4.7%), 5(1.7%), 6(2.0%) and 14(4.7%) were infected with plasmodium, haemoproteus, leucocytozoon, plasmodium+leucocytozoon, haemoproteus+leucocytozoon, and plasmodium+haemoproteus respectively. The results also shows male has the highest incidence of infection than the female. Similarly between the adult and young, the highest incidence was recorded in adult chickens. Thus, it is recommended that chickens in Maiduguri to be treated against the plasmodium and other parasitic diseases.
Atkinson, C.T., Thomas, NJ, and Hunter, DJ3. (2008). Avian Malaria In parasitic Disease of WildBirds, Eds, 35 - 53 Wiley - Blackwell
Atkinson, C.T. and Forrester, DJ. (2008). Leucocytozoonsis. In parasitic disease of wild birds Eds, 54-107. Wiley Blackwell.
Biu, A.A., jidda, M. S. Yahaya, K. (2005). Prevalence of Blood Parasites of Domestics Pigeons in Maiduguri, Nigeria. Journal of biomedical and Health sciences. 1:21-24
Covas, R. Beandeli, J.S, Ishtiaq F,Melo, M., Warren, B.H. Atkinson, C.T Benson, S.s Graves, G.RJhala, Y.V., Peirce, M.A, Rahmani,A.R., Fonseca, D,M and Fleichher R.C. (2006). Global phylogsographic limits of Hawalls avian Malaria proceeding biological sciences the royal Society, 273, 2935-2944.
Danilewsky, V. (1889). Le Parasitologie Comparie du sang. I Nouvellesrecherchésur les Parasites du sang des oiSeaux. A. Dame, Khark off.
Derraik, T. (2006). Studies on the Ecology of Avian Malaria in an Alpine Ecosystem. PhD. Dissertation, University of Michigan, 66-67.
Grossman, C. J. (1985). Interactions between the gonadal steroids and the immune System. Science. 227:257-61
Knowles, S.C.L., palinauskas,V. and Scheldon, B.C (2010b). A chronic malaria infection increase family inequalities and reduces parental fitness; experimental evidence from a sild bird population. Journal of evolutionary biology, 23, 557-569.
Karamaba K. I, Kawo, A.H., N.T and Mukhtar, M.D. A (2013). Survey of avian malaria in Kano State "Northern Nigeria. International' journal for biotechnology and Molecular Biology Research, 3(1), 8-14
Kottek, M., J. Grieser, C. Beck, B, Rudolf, and F. Rubel, (2006): World Map of the Koppen-Geiger climate classification updated. Meteorol. Z, 15, 259-263. DOI:10.1127/0941-2948/2006/0130.
Perez-Tris, T.,Hasselguisl, D., Hellgren, O.;Krizanauskiene, A., Waldesnstron, J. and Bensch, S. (2005). What are parasites? Trends Parasitology, 21, 209-211.
Perez-Tris, J., Parker, P. G. and Bensch, S. (2009). Diagnosing Genetically Diverse Avian Malaria Infections. Journal of Parasitology, 131, 1-9.
Poulin, R. (1996). Helmith Growth in Vertebrates Hosts: Does host sex matters? International Journal of Parasitology 26; 1311-1315.
Schalk, G. and Forbes, M. R. (1997). Male Biases in Parasitism of mammals: Effects of Study type, host age and parasite taxon Oikos 78: 67-74.
Valkiunas, G. (2005). Avian Malaria Parasites and other Heamosporidia. CRC Press, 978- 0415300971. Boca Raton. Florida. USA.
Van Ripper, C., (2000) Bird-parasite Interactions, Ecology, Evaluation and Behavior: New York, Oxford university press; p. 09 - 18.