Biology and Life Sciences
Received: 17 Sep 2018 , Published: 22 September 2018
Views: 171 , Download: 0
|2||Dr. Pukuma M.S|
Schistosomiasis also known as Bilharziasis or snail fever is a common intravascular trematode infection most common in developing regions of Africa and Asia. Five major species of parasitic trematodes of the family Schistosomatidae including Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma intercalatum, Schistosoma japonicum, Schistosoma mansoni, and Schistosoma mekongi. Over 200 million people, almost all of them in developing countries, suffered from Schistosomiasis which is associated with economic losses, and frequently interferes with development projects. The disease is endemic in most African countries where up to one-third of school age children may be actively infected. Hence this study was aimed to assess the distribution and pattern of Schistosomiasis. 600 urine sample each were examined from 600 persons were a clean, pre-labelled screw-capped plastic container were distributed with instructions to collect urine. The samples were immediately transported to diagnostic laboratory for examination. Sedimentation method was use to examine the urine sample. The overall number of people infected with Schistosoma haematobium was 162(27.0%). The results also shows that age group 6-15 years has the highest infection rates of 92(43.6%) male infected with Schistosoma haematobium while 18(21.7%) of female infected with Schistosoma haematobium respectively. Followed by age group 16-25 with 34(20.8%) number of male infected with Schistosoma haematobium, while 10(13.2%) of female infected with Schistosoma haematobium respectively. It is recommended that the control of snail intermediate host and the infective stage (cercariae) would in no doubt reduce the rate of transmission, thereby reducing the prevalence of infections. It was then concluded that Schistosomiasis among the study area was highly prevalent. Therefore, routine treatment, diagnosis and surveillance of the disease should be done by community-based organization to reduce the menace.
Key words: Helminth Parasites, Schistosomiasis, Schistosoma haematobium, Schistosoma, Schistosoma mansoni, Snails
Abdullahi, M.K., Bassey, S.E. and Oyeyi, T.I. (2011). The Epidemiology of Schistosoma haematobium Infection in the 44 Local Government Area of Kano State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology, 32: 19 – 24.
Akinboye, D.O., J.U. Ajisebetu, O. FAwole, O.M. Agbolade and O.O. (2011). Urinary Schistosomiasis: Water Contact Frequency and Infertility among Secondary School Students in Ibadan, Nigeria, Nigerian Journal of Parasitology, 32: 129 – 134.
Cheesebrough, M. (2008). District Laboratory Practice in Tropical Countries, 2nd Edition; P. 106 – 108.
Chidozie, J., Patrick, G., Cletus, D.C., Reuben, O. (2007). Urinary Schistosomiasis among School Children in Ebonyi State, Nigeria, International Journal of Laboratory Medicine.
Dawet, A., C.B. Benjamin, D.P. Yakubu (2012). Prevalence and Intensity of Schistosoma haematobium among Resident of Gwong and Kabong in Jos North Local Government Area, Plateau State, Nigeria. International Journal of Tropical Medicine, 7(2) 69 – 73.
Ekejindu IM, Ekejindu GOC, Andy A (2002). Scistosoma heamatobium infection and nutritional status of residents in Azi-anam, a riverine area of Anmbara State, South-Eastern Nigeria. Niger. J. Parasitol. 23:133-138.
Gryseel, B., Polman, K., Clerinx, J., Kestens, L. (2007). Human Schistosomiasis. Lancet. 368(9541): 1106 – 18.
Ikusemoran, M. and jimme, A.M. (2014) A Decades Assessments of Maiduguri urban expansion (2002-2012): Geospatial Approach. Global journal of geography, geo management volume 14.
Jamda, A.M., Ogbonna, C., Zoakah, I.A. and Daboer, J.C. (2007): Impact of health education on knowledge and practices of urinary Schistosomiasis among children in Martin village journal of tropical medicine 9:21-27.
Joseph, M.B., B. Gaji, T. Mohammed, M.M. Baba and I.B. Thilza (2010). Incidence of Schistosomiasis in Primary School Pupil with Particular Reference to Schistosoma haematobium in Maiduguri, Researcher, 2: 31 – 36.
King CH, Dangerfield-Cha M (2008). The unacknowledged impact of chronic Schistosomiasis. Chronic Illn. 4: 65-79.
Kiran S, Muddasiru D (2014). Epidemiology of schistosomiasis in school aged children in some riverine areas of Sokoto, Nigeria. Niger. J. Parasitol. 6(6):197-201.
Nale, V., Galadima, M. and Yakubu, S.E. (2009). Index of Potential Contamination of Urinary Schistosomiasis in Five Settlement near River Kubannai in Zaria, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology 24: 95 – 101.
Nmorsi OPG, Egwunyenga OA, Ukwandu NCD, Nwokolo NQ (2011) Urinary Schistosomiasis in a rural community in Edo state, Nigeria: Eosinophiluria as a diagnostic marker. Afr. J. Biotechnol. 4: 183-186.
Nnoruka, V.C. (2009). Epidemiological Studies of Urinary Schistosomiasis. Pub: Nigerian Journal of Parasitology, Vol. 21, p. 21 – 23.
Ombugadu, R.J. (2001) A Study of Schistosoma haematobium among the inhabitats of Udege community in Nassarawa State, Nigeria. Biol., Environ. Sci., journal of tropical Medicine, 8:8184.
Okoli, C.G., J.C. Anosike, and M.O.E. Iwuala (2006). Prevalence and Distribution of Urinary Schistosomiasis in Ohaji/Egbema Local Government Area of Imo State, Nigeria. Journal Am. Science, 2:46 – 49.
Okoli, C.G. (2007). Urinary Schistosomiasis in Cross River State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology 17:40 – 47.
Okon, O.E.E., Udoutun, M.F., Nta, A.I., Etim, S.E., Abram, J.T. and Akpan, P.A. (2007). Prevalence of Urinary Schistosomiasis in Abini Community, Biase Local Government Area of Cross River State, Nigeria. Nigerian Journal of Parasitology. Vol. 28(1): 28 – 31.
Pugh RN, Gille HN (2008). Malumfashi endemic research project III Urinary Schistosomiasis; a longitudinal study. Ann. Trop. Med Parasitol. 72: 271-482.
Pukuma MS, Musa SP (2007). Prevalence of urinary schistosomiasis among residents of Waduku in Lamurde Local Government Area of Adamawa State Nigeria. Niger. J. Parasitol. 28(2):65-68.
Pukuma, S.M., M. Sale, H.L. Njila and M. Dibal (2006). A High Prevalence of 65 and 38.9% in Fishermen and Civil Servant Respectively was reported among School Pupils in Shelleng Town, Adamawa State, Nigeria. Journal of Infectious Pest Disease Vector Management, 7:45 – 448.
Ugbomoiko U.S., Ofoezie,I.E., Okoye, I.C. and Heukelback, J. (2010) Factors associated with urinary Schistosomiasis in two peri-urban communities in south-western Nigeria. Annal tropical medical parasitology, 104:409-419.
World health organization (WHO), 2013. Schistosomiasis, fact sheet no 115. Available at www.who.int/mediacentre/face sheet.