Computer Science & Electrical

Computer Science & Electrical

Analysis on Multiple Access Capability of Hybrid Spread Spectrum System with Optimal Sequences - A Review of Performance Parameters Trade-off

Pages: 9  ,  Volume: 12  ,  Issue: 1 , September   2018
Received: 17 Sep 2018  ,  Published: 22 September 2018
Views: 22  ,  Download: 0


# Author Name
1 Farooq Hassan
2 Dr Sana Ajmal
3 Zafran Khan
4 Usama Hassan


The performance analysis of hybrid direct- sequence/frequency-hopped spread spectrum multiple-access communication system over additive white Gaussian noise chan- nels in asynchronous environment is reviewed. Binary phase shift keying is considered as base modulation for data signals. Random binary signature sequences as spreading codes and hopping patterns are employed. Several numerical results and graphs help in determining the optimal tradeoff between various performance parameters of the hybrid spread spectrum multiple access (HSSMA) system. Multiple access capability of the system is examined with respect to transmission of maximum simultaneous signals and corresponding error probability. It is devised that under the identical bandwidth expansion and same modulation scheme along with random signature sequences and hoping pattern, the multiple access capability of hybrid spread- spectrum system is considerably better than frequency-hopped spread spectrum (FHSS) system. But under same conditions, directsequence spread spectrum (DSSS) system performance is superior to H-SSMA system. Generation and performance analysis of different types and lengths of pseudo-random binary sequences are discussed in necessary detail, for use in spread spectrum multiple access scenario. Impact of code length, number of available hopping frequencies with respect to total number of users, signal to noise ratio at the particular receiver, variation in hopping speed with respect to data rate and tolerable error probability for the total number of possible simultaneous trans- missions is determined, to achieve optimum performance of the H-SSMA system.


  • CDMA
  • Probability of Error
  • SNR
  • Correlation Properties of Gold Codes
  • Multiple Access Feature of HSS System
  • References

    1. R Gold 1967, Optimal Binary Sequences for Spread Spectrum Multiplexing IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Volume: 13, Issue: 4, October 1967.

    2. D. Sarwate, M. Pursley, Cross correlation properties of pseudo-random and related sequences, Proc. IEEE}, vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 593-619, 1980.

    3. S.V. Maric and E.L Titlebaum, A class of frequency hop codes with nearly ideal characteristics for use in multiple- access spread spectrum communications and radar and sonar systems, IEEE Trans. Comm. 40,(9),pp.1442-1447, 1992.

    4. G. Ge, Y. Miao, and Z. Yao, Optimal frequency hopping sequences: Auto and cross-correlation properties, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 55, no. 2, pp. 867-879, 2009.

    5. R.  Gold, Study of Correlation Properties of Binary  Sequences, Tech. Rpt.  AFAL-TR 66-234, Aug 1966.

    6. H Roef, Binary Sequences for SSMA communication, Report R-785, Coordinated science Laboratory, University of Illinois 1977.

    7. M Pursley, D Sarwate, New correlation identities for periodic sequences, Electronic letters, Vol 13, pp 48-49, 1977.

    8. M B Pursley and H Roefs, Numerical evaluation of correlation parameters for optimal phases of binary shift-register sequences. IEEE Trans on Comm, Vol Comm 27, No 10. October 1979.

    9. M.  B.  Pursley, Performance evaluation for phase-coded spread spectrum  multiple-access communications - Part  I: System analysis, IEEE Trans.Comm.,Vol.COM-25 , PP.795-799, Aug. 1977

    10. Spread-spectrum multiple-access communications in Multiple-User Communication Systems, G.  Longo.  Ed.  Vienna  and NY: Springer-verlag, 1981, pp139-199.

    11. Error probabilities for slow-frequency-hopped spread-spectrum multiple-access communications over fading channels, IEEE Trans. Comm, vol. COM-30, pp. 996-1009, 1982.

    12. E. A. Geraniotis,  Coding for BPSK SFH/SSMA  communications over  fading  channels,  IEEE  Military  Comm Conf.  Rec., vol. 2, Oct.1982, pp. 35.1-5.

    13. J. H. Gass Jr and M. B. Pursley, A comparison of slow-frequency-hop and direct-sequence spread- spectrum  systems for different  multi-path delay  profiles, IEEE Proceedings of 97th MILCOM vol. 2, pp. 812–816, 1997.

    14. Y. Sharma, Performance  study of hybrid spread spectrum techniques, Masters thesis, University of Tennessee - Knoxville, 2005.

    15. J. Hu, J.-b. Yuan, L. Zheng, and H. Liu, Design and implementation of DS/FH system based on MSK modulation, Modern Electronics Technique, vol.5, p.001, 2014.

    16. A. Ephremedis, J. E. Wieselthier, D. J. Baker, A design concept for reliable mobile radio networks with frequency hopping signalling, Proc. IEEE, vol. 75, no. 1, pp. 56-73, Jan. 1987.

    17. E Geraniotis, Coherent Hybrid DS-SFH Spread-Spectrum Multiple-Access IEEE Journal on selected areas in communications, Vol.  SAC-3, no.5, September 1985.

    18. E Gerniotis, Error probabilities for slow-frequency-hopped spread-spectrum  multiple-access communications over fading channels,IEEE Trans. Cornm, vol. COM-30, pp. 996-1009, 1982.

    19. E Geraniotis, Non coherent Hybrid DS-SFH Spread-Spectrum Multiple-Access Communications, IEEE Trans on Comm, Vol Comm.34, No.9, September 1986.

    20. Kung Yao, Error Probability of Asynchronous Spread Spectrum Multiple  Access  Communication Systems. IEEE TRANSACTIONS  ON  COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. COM-25, NO. 8}, August, 1997.

    21. M. B Pursley, Performance  Evaluation  for  Phase-Coded  Spread-Spectrum Multiple-Access Communication - Part  I : IEEE TRANSACTIONS  ON  COMMUNICATIONS, VOL. COM-25, NO. 8, August, 1997.

    22. Universal Mobile Telecommunication System,  Rohde-Scharz UMTS, Third Edition, Germany 2006.

    23. A Goldsmith, Wireless Communications, 2004.

    24. William Stallings, Book on Wireless Communication and Networks. 8th Edition

    25. P.Fan, and M.H Lee, New Family of Hopping Sequences for Time/Frequency-Hopping CDMA Systems, IEEE Transactions on Wireless Communications, Vol. 4, No. 6, pp. 2836-2842, Nov. 2005.

    26. K. Choi, H. Liu, Quasi-Synchronous CDMA Using Properly Scrambled Walsh Codes as User-Spreading Sequences. IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, V:59, Issue: 7 Pages: 3609 – 3617, 2010.

    27. Y. Yang, X. Tang, P. Udaya, and D. Peng, New bound on frequency hopping sequence sets and its optimal constructions, IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 57, no. 11, pp. 7605-7613, Nov. 2011.

    28. M.S. Iacobucci and M.G.D. Benedetom, Multiple access design for impulse radio communication systems, IEEE International Conference on Communications, pp817- 820, 2002.

    29. I Vajda, Code sequences for FHMA system, 0090-6778/95 1995 IEEE.

    30. Gold 1967, Optimal Binary Sequences for Spread Spectrum Multiplexing, IEEE Transactions on Information Theory, Volume: 13, Issue: 4, October 1967.

    31. K O Feher 2005, Book on Wireless digital communication, modulation and spread spectrum applications, Chapter 6.

    32. M Pursley, D Sarwate, New correlation identities for periodic sequences, Electronic letters, Vol 13, pp 48-49, 1977.

    33. D. Sarwate, M. Pursley, Cross correlation properties of pseudo-random and related sequences, Proc. IEEE, vol. 68, no. 5, pp. 593-619, 1980.

    34. H.  F. A. ROEFS M.  B. PURSLEY, Correlation parameters of random binary sequences, Electronics letters. Vol.13 No.16, 4th August 1977.