Biology and Life Sciences
Received: 08 Sep 2018 , Published: 08 September 2018
Views: 42 , Download: 21
|1||Pagthinathan, M*., Thushanthini, S and Nafees, M.S.M1|
Mastitis is one of the most serious diseases that can affect quality of milk and milk products, it’s derived from it. In the present study, yoghurts were made from cows’ milk with four different somatic cell count (P1: 3.6 × 105 cells/ml; P2: 4.5 × 105 cells/ml; P3: 5.4 × 105 cells/ml; P4: 7.2 × 105 cells/ml). The yoghurts made from different range of SCC were analyzed for chemical parameters (dry matter, ash, fat, protein, total sugar, reducing sugar content and titrable acidity), physical parameter (pH and syneresis) and sensory evaluation during the storage period. Yoghurt made with different SC counts of milk except reducing sugar and total protain had no significant effects on the dry matter, ash, fat, reducing sugar, total sugar, pH and titratable acidity at day 1 but syneresis was gradually increased in yoghurt made milk with higher SC counts.
During the storage period, dry matter, ash, fat, total protein, total sugar, reducing sugar, pH, and titratable acidity were (p < 0.05) varied yoghurts made from milk with different SC counts. At the end of storage yoghurt made from milk with 5.4 × 105 cells/ml showed higher average value of dry matter content (25.83±0.06%) and yoghurt made from milk with 3.6 × 105 cells/ml SC counts range showed higher average value of fat (2.67±0.06%), reducing sugar (2.02±0.09%), total sugar (11.89±0.02%) and pH (4.09±0.08) while yoghurt made from milk with 7.2 × 105 cells/ml showed higher values of total protein (3.72±0.10%) and titratable acidity (1.18±0.03%). During the storage period, dry matter, ash and titratable acidity contents of yoghurt were (p < 0.05) increasing with storage period while reducing sugar, total sugar and pH were (p < 0.05) decreasing with storage period. The sensory evaluation of the produced yogurts revealed that milk with high SC counts yoghurt received the lowest grading score of attributes and all sensory scores of yoghurts were significantly reduced from week 1 to week 4 of storage. Based on the sensory evaluation most of the pannelist prefer or higher score obtained, yoghurt made from milk with low SC counts (3.6 × 105 cells/ml) at the 1st week of storage.
1. Karagul, Y. Wilson, C. and White, H. (2004). Formulations and processing of yogurt affect the microbial quality of carbonated yogurt. Journal of Dairy Science. 87 (3): 543-550.
2.Desai, S. R., Toro, V. A. and Joshi, V. (1994). Utilization of different fruit in the manufacture of yoghurt. Indian Journal of Dairy Science. 47: 870-874.
3. Vivar-Quintana, A. M., De La Mano, E. B. and Revilla, I. (2006). Relationship between somatic cell counts and the properties of yoghurt made from ewes’ milk. International dairy journal, 16 (3): 262-267.
4. Harmon, R. J. (1994). Physiology of mastitis and factors affecting somatic cell counts. Journal of Dairy Science, 77: 2103–2112
5. Lee, C. S., Wooding, F. B. P. and Kemp. P. (1980). Identification properties, and differential counts of cell populations using electron microscopy of drycows secretions, colostrum and milk from normal cows. Journal of Dairy Research. 47:39.
6. Fernandes, A. M., Oliveira, C. A. And Lima, C. G. (2007). Effects of somatic cell counts in milk on physical and chemical characteristics of yoghurt. International Dairy Journal, 17(2): 111-115.
7. Gonzalo, C., Baro, J. A., Carriedo, J. A. and San Primitivo, F. (1993). Use of the fossomatic method to determine somatic cell counts in sheep milk. Journal of dairy science, 76(1): 115- 119.
8. Pelvan, M. and Unluturk, S. (2015). Application of Flow Cytometry and Fluorescence Techniques in Somatic Cell Analysis of Raw Milk. DNA, 13, 12.
9. AOAC International. (2005). Official methods of analysis of AOAC International. AOAC International
10. Marshall, R. T. (1993). Standard methods for the examination of dairy products. American Public Health Association
11. Klei, L., Yun, J., Sapru, A., Lynch, J., Barbano, D., Sears, P. and Galton, D. (1998). Effects of milk somatic cell count on cottage cheese yield and quality. Journal of Dairy Science, 81(5): 1205-1213.
12. Akpapunam MA, Sefa-Dedeh S. (1995)."Traditional lactic acid fermentation, malt addition and quality development in maize, cowpea weaning blends". Food and Nutrition. Bulletin, 16: 75-80.
13. Dave, R. I. and Shah, N. P. (1997). Effectiveness of ascorbic acid as an oxygen scavenger in improving viability of probiotic bacteria in yoghurts made with commercial starter cultures. International Dairy Journal, 7(6): 435-443.
14. Domaga?a, J. (2009). Instrumental texture, syneresis and microstructure of yoghurts prepared from goat, cow and sheep milk. International Journal of Food Properties, 12(3): 605-615.
15. Larmond, E. (1977). Laboratory methods for sensory evaluation of food. Research Branch, Canada Dept. of Agriculture.
16. Tamime, A. Y., Saarela, M. A. K. S., Sondergaard, A. K., Mistry, V. V. and Shah, N. P. (2005). Production and maintenance of viability of probiotic micro-organisms in dairy products. Probiotic dairy products, 39-72.
17. Everard, C. D., O’Callaghan, D. J., Mateo, M. J., O’Donnell, C. P., Castillo, M., and Payne, F. A. (2008). Effects of cutting intensity and stirring speed on syneresis and curd losses during cheese manufacture. Journal of dairy science, 91(7): 2575-2582.
18. Ak?n, M. B., Ak?n, M. S. and K?rmac?, Z. (2007). Effects of inulin and sugar levels on the viability of yogurt and probiotic bacteria and the physical and sensory characteristics in probiotic ice-cream. Food chemistry, 104(1): 93-99.
19. Zayed, G. and Roos, Y. H. (2004). Influence of trehalose and moisture content on survival of Lactobacillus salivarius subjected to freeze-drying and storage. Process Biochemistry, 39(9): 1081-1086.
20. Penna, A. L. B., Oliveira, M. N. and Tamime, A. Y. (2003). Influence of carrageenan and total solids content on the rheological properties of lactic beverage made with yogurt and whey. Journal of Texture Studies, 34(1): 95-113.
21. Hachana, Y., Kraiem, K. and Paape, M. J. (2010). Effect of plasmin, milk somatic cells and psychrotrophic bacteria on casein fractions of ultra-high temperature treated milk. Food science and technology research, 16(1): 79-86.
22. Auldist, M. J., Coats, S. J., Sutherland, B. J., Hardham, J. F., McDowell, G. H. and Rogers, G. L. (1996). Effect of somatic cell count and stage of lactation on the quality and storage life of ultra- high temperature milk. Journal of Dairy Research, 63(03): 377-386.
23. Senyk, G. F., Barbano, D. M. and Shipe, W. F. (1985). Proteolysis in milk associated with increasing somatic cell counts. Journal of Dairy Science, 68(9): 2189-2194.
24. Leroy, F. and De Vuyst, L. (2004). Lactic acid bacteria as functional starter cultures for the food fermentation industry. Trends in Food Science & Technology, 15(2): 67-78.
25. Pinheiro, M. V. S., Oliveira, M. N., Penna, A. L. B. and Tamime, A. Y. (2005). The effect of different sweeteners in low calorie yogurts a review. International Journal of Dairy Technology, 58(4): 193-199.
26. Chipurura, B., Pswarayi, F. and Muchuweti, M. (2014). Sensory properties and consumer acceptance of a stirred-type yoghurt Produced from Baobab (Adansoniadigitata) pulp during refrigerated storage. African Journal of Food, Agriculture, Nutrition and Development, 14(2).
27. Amatayakul, T., Halmos, A. L., Sherkat, F. and Shah, N. P. (2006). Physical characteristics of yoghurts made using exopolysaccharide-producing starter cultures and varying casein to whey protein ratios. International Dairy Journal, 16(1): 40-51.
28. Le Maréchal, C., Thiéry, R., Vautor, E. and Le Loir, Y. (2011). Mastitis impact on technological properties of milk and quality of milk products—a review .Dairy science and technology, 91(3): 247-282.
29. Raynal-Ljutovac, K., Pirisi, A., De Cremoux, R. and Gonzalo, C. (2007). Somatic cells of goat and sheep milk: analytical, sanitary, productive and technological aspects. Small Ruminant Research, 68 (1): 126-144.
30. Pinto, S., Clemente, M. D. G. and De Abreu, L. R. (2009). Behaviour of volatile compounds during the shelf life of yoghurt. International journal of dairy technology, 62(2): 215-223.