Biology and Life Sciences
Received: 18 Aug 2018 , Published: 23 August 2018
Views: 26 , Download: 16
|2||W. S. Malinda Harsha Kumara|
A 42-day feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the effect of diets formulated using fishmeal and chicken meat meal on the growth of ornamental koi (Cyprinus carpio) juveniles. Two isonitrogenous (CP 42%) experimental diets were prepared using imported chicken meat meal (T1) prepared from rejected chicken and imported fishmeal (T2). A commercial fish feed was used as control (T3). Ninety 28-days old mixed-sex koi juveniles were randomly allocated to nine glass tanks (45×30×30 cm3 each) at a stocking density of 10 fish per tank. Each treatment had three replicates. The results showed that fat content of T3 were lower (P<0.05) than that of T1 and T2 while ash content of T1 was lower (P<0.05) than T2. There was no differences (P>0.05) in weight gain (WG), specific growth rate (SGR), feed conversion ratio (FCR) and survival of fish fed with control and experimental diets. The chicken meat meal could be used as a protein supplement in koi feeds to replace high cost fishmeal. Hence, ornamental Cyprinus carpio could be raised with lowest cost on T1 than that of from commercial koi diet.
AOAC. (1990). Official Methods for Analysis (15th Edition). Association of Official Analytical Chemists, Arlington, VA., USA.
Boyd, C.E. (2015). Overview of aquaculture feeds: global impacts of ingredient use. In D.A. Davis (ed.), Feed and Feeding Practices in Aquaculture (pp. 3-25): Woodhead Publishing, UK.
Chakrabarty, D., Das, S.K., Das, M.K and Bag, M.P. (2010). Low cost fish feed for aquarium fish: a test case using Colisa fasciata. Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research, 8(2): 312-316.
Choi, J., Aminikhoei, Z., Kim, Y and Lee, S. (2015). Effects of Dietary Protein and Lipid Levels on Growth and Body Composition of Juvenile Fancy Carp, Cyprinus carpio var. Koi. International Scholarly and Scientific Research & Innovation, 9(1): 31-37.
Chr. Jensen, N. (1990). Quality Fish Meal: Specifications and Use in Aquaculture and Fur Farming. Paper presented at International By-Products Conference, Anchorage, Alaska. pp. 127-141.
De Silva, S., Turchini, G and Francis, D. (2012). Nutrition. In J.S. Lucas and P.C. Southgate (eds.), Aquaculture: Farming Aquatic Animals and Plants (pp. 164-187): John Wiley & Sons, UK.
Emre, Y., Sevgili, H and Diler, I. (2003). Replacing Fish Meal with Poultry By-Product Meal in Practical Diets for Mirror Carp (Cyprinus carpio) Fingerlings. Turkish Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Sciences, 3: 81-85.
FAO. (2016). The State of World Fisheries and Aquaculture 2014: FAO Fisheries and Aquaculture Department, Food and Agriculture Organization of United Nations (FAO), Rome, Italy.
Herath, S.S and Satoh, S. (2015). Environmental impact of phosphorus and nitrogen from aquaculture. In D. A. Davis (ed.), Feed and Feeding Practices in Aquaculture (pp.369-386): Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition (Number 287), UK.
Hernández, C., González-Santos, A., Valverde-Romero, M., González-Rodríguez, B and Domínguez-Jiménez, P. (2016). Partial replacement of fishmeal with meat and bone meal and tuna byproducts meal in practical diets for juvenile spotted rose snapper Lutjanus guttatus. Latin American Journal of Aquatic Research, 44(1): 56-64.
Knop, D and Moorhead, J. (2012). Ornamentals. In J.S. Lucas and P.C. Southgate (eds.), Farming Aquatic Animals and Plants (pp. 583-605): Blackwell Publishing Ltd., UK.
Kureshy, N., Davis, D.A and Arnold, C.R. (2000). Partial Replacement of Fish Meal with Meat-and-Bone Meal, Flash-Dried Poultry By-Product Meal, and Enzyme-Digested Poultry By-Product Meal in Practical Diets for Juvenile Red Drum. North American Journal of Aquaculture, 62: 266-272.
Kwikiriza, G., Tibenda, V.N., Wadunde, A.O., Abaho, I and Ondhoro, C.C. (2016). Proximate nutrient composition and cost of the selected potential fish feed ingredients in Lake Victoria basin, Uganda. International Journal of Fisheries and Aquatic Studies, 4(3): 611-615.
Lall, S.P and Dumas, A. (2015). Nutritional requirements of cultured fish: formulating nutritionally adequate feeds. In D.A. Davis (ed.), Feed and Feeding Practices in Aquaculture (pp. 53-109): Woodhead Publishing, UK.
Mahfuj, M. S., Hossain, M.A and Sarower, M.G. (2012). Effect of different feeds on larval development and survival of ornamental koi carp, Cyprinus carpio (Linnaeus, 1758) larvae in laboratory condition. J. Bangladesh Agril. Univ., 10(1): 179–183.
National Research Council. (1993). Nutrient Requirements of Fish. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C.
Qinghui, A., Kangsen, M., Beiping, T., Wei, X., Qingyuan, D., Hongming, M and Lu, Z. (2006). Replacement of fish meal by meat and bone meal in diets for large yellow croaker, Pseudosciaena crocea. Aquaculture, 260: 255-263.
Strange, R. (2010). Nutrition in Fish. In H.E. Roberts (ed.), Fundamentals of Ornamental Fish Health (pp. 89-101): Wiley-Blackwell Publishing Ltd., USA.
Tangendjaja, B. (2015). Quality control of feed ingredients for aquaculture. In D. A. Davis (ed.), Feed and Feeding Practices in Aquaculture (pp.141-169): Woodhead Publishing Series in Food Science, Technology and Nutrition (Number 287), UK.
Weerasingha, R., Soorasena, W.G.C. U and Athukorala, D.A. (2017). Utilization of minor cyprinids (Dawkinsia singhala and Puntius chola) from reservoirs as protein sources for feeds of juvenile koi carp (Cyprinus carpio). Sri Lanka J. Aquat. Sci., 22(1): 39-44.
Wei, Z., Kangsen, M., Baigang, Z., Fuzhen, W and Yu, Y. (2004). A study on the meat and bone meal and poultry by-product meal as protein substitutes of fish meal in practical diets for Litopenaeus vannamei juveniles. J. Ocean Univ. China, 3: 157.
Wei, Z., Kangsen, M., Baigang, Z., Yangjiang, H and Yu, Y. (2006). A study on the meat and bone meal or poultry by-product meal as protein substitutes of fishmeal in concentrated diets for Paralichthys olivaceus. J. Ocean Univ. China, 5: 63.
Yesilayer, N., Oz, M., Karsil, Z., Aral, O., Karacuha, A and Oz, U. (2011). Growth Performance and Feed Utilization of Koi Carp (Cyprinus carpio L., 1758) Fed Partial or Total Replacement of Fish Meal with Hazelnut Meal and Soybean Meal. Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances, 10(15): 1956-1961.