Chemistry & Chemical Engineering
Received: 02 Aug 2018 , Published: 07 August 2018
Views: 70 , Download: 49
|1||Elangwe Collins Ngoe|
|3||Tchuifon Tchuifon Donald|
|4||Nche George Ndifor-Angwafor|
In this study, response surface methodology (RSM) was employed to optimize the adsorption of 4-nitroaniline (4-NA) from aqueous solution onto activated carbons obtained from peanut shells (PNAC) and avocado seed (ASAC). The samples were activated with 0.6 M KOH and were characterized using FTIR, XRD techniques. Different physical properties such as moisture content, pH, pHpzc and iodine number were also determined. Response surface methodology was used to study the interactive effect and to optimize the operational parameters on the adsorption capacity of 4-NA onto PNAC and ASAC. It was shown that a second order polynomial regression model properly interprets the experimental data with correlation coefficients of determination (R2) values of 97.17% and 95.68% for 4-NA adsorption on PNAC and ASAC respectively. Results also showed that the optimum conditions for the adsorption of 4-NA from aqueous solution onto PNAC and ASAC were as follows: optimum initial 4-NA concentration of 50 mg/L, pH of 3 and contact time of 49.05 minutes onto PNAC and 65.5 minutes onto ASAC were obtained which resulted to an optimum adsorption capacity of 3.10 mg/g and 2.42 mg/g of 4-NA onto PNAC and ASAC respectively. The results obtained showed that peanut shell activated carbon exhibited a better performance than avocado seed activated carbon for the removal of 4-NA from aqueous media.
Key words: Activated Carbon, Adsorption, Central Composite design, 4-NA, RSM
 Alemagi, D.; Oben, M. & Ertel, J. (2006). Mitigating industrial pollution along the Atlantic coast of Cameroon: An overview of Government Effort. The Environmentalist, 26(1), 41-50.
 Gerald, B. (2005). Nitro Compounds, Aromatics in Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry (7th Edition), Wiley, 2, 181-200.
 Bhunia, F.; Saha, N. C.; Kaviraj, A. (2003). Effects of aniline-an aromatic amine to freshwater organisms. Ecotoxicology, 12, 397-403.
 Mackinson, F. W.; Sticott, R. S. & Partridge, L. (1981). Occupational Health Guidelines for Chemical Hazards. DHHS publication, Washington, D. C, USA, 3, 81-123.
 Oturan, M. A.; Peiroten, J.; Chartrin, P.; Acher, A. J. (2000). Complete destruction of
p-nitrophenol in aqueous medium by Electro-Fenton method. Environmental Science and Technology, 34, 3474-3479.
 Mckay, G.; Prasad, G. R.; Mouli, P. R. (1998). The removal of dye colours from aqueous solutions by adsorption on low-cost materials. Water, Air and Soil pollution, 114, 423–438.
 Ferrero, F. (2007). Dye removal by low cost adsorbent: Hazelnut shells in comparison with wood saw dust, Journal of Hazardous materials, 142: 144-152.
 Dhiraj, S. M.; Garima, M. P. (2008). Agricultural Waste Material as Potential Adsorbent for sequestering Heavy Metal Ions from Aqueous Solutions– A Review Saint longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Department of Chemistry, Longowal, India.
 Narayana, S. K. V.; king, P.; Gopinadh, R., Sreelakshmi, V. (2011). Response surface optimization of dye removal by using waste prawn shells. International journal of chemical sciences and Applications, 2(3), 186-193.
 Veronica, C. (1999). One factor-at-a-time versus designed experiments. Journal of American Statistician, 53(2), 126-131.
 Myers, R. H.; Montgomery, D. C. & Anderson-Cook, C. M. (2016). Response Surface Methodology: Process and product optimization using Designed experiment. John Wiley, Hoboken, New Jersey, USA, 856p.
 Kifuani, K. M.; Noki, V. P.; Ndelo, D. P.; Mukana, W. M.; Ekoko, B. G.; Ilinga, L. B. & Mukinayi, J. (2012). Adosption de la quinine bichlorhydrate sûr un charbon actif peu couteux à base de la Bagasse de canne a sucre imprégnée de l’acide phosphorique. International Journal of Biological and Chemical Society, 6, 1337-1359.
 Tchuifon, D. R.; Anagho, S. G.; Njanja, E.; Ghogomu, J. N.; Ndifor-Angwafor, N. G & Kamgaing, T. (2014). Equilibrium and kenetic modelling of methyl orange adsorption from aqueous solution using rice husk and egussi peeling. International Journal of Chemical Science, 12, 141-161.
 Lopes-Ramon, M. V.; Stoeckli, F.; Moreno-Castilla, C. & Carrasco-Marin, F. (1999). On the characterization of acidic and basic surface sites on carbons by various techniques. Carbon, 37, 1215-1221.
 Annadurai, G.; Babu, S. R.; Nagarajan, G. & Ragu, K. (2000). Use of Box-Behnken design of experiments in the production of manganese peroxidase by Phancrochate chrysosporium (MTCC 767) and decolorization of crystal violet. Bioprocess Engineering, 23, 715-719.
 Ravikumar, K.; Krishnan, S.; Ramalingam, S.; Balu, K. (2007). Optimization of process variables by the application of response surface methodology for dye removal using novel adsorbent. Dyes and Pigments, 72, 66-74.
 Montgomery, D. C. (2017). Design and Analysis of Experiments (9th Edition), Wiley, New York, USA, 630p.
 Ndi, N. J. ; Ketcha, M. J. ; Anagho, G. S.; Ghogomu, N. J. & Belibi, E. P. (2014). Physical and chemical characteristics of activated carbon prepared by pyrolysis of chemically treated Cola nut (cola acuminate) Shells wastes and its ability to adsorbed organics. International journal of Advanced Chemical Technology, 3, 1-13.
 Suarez-Garcia, F.; Martinez-Alonso, A.; Tascón, J. M. D. (2002). Pyrolysis of apple pulp: effect of operation conditions and chemical additives. Journal of Energy and Environmental Engineering, 3(32), 2251-6832.
 Yagmur, E.; Ozmak, M. & Aktas, Z. (2008). A novel method for production of activated carbon from waste tea by chemical activation with microwave energy. Fuel, 87, 3278- 3285.
 Omri, A. & Benzina, M. (2012). Characterization of activated carbon prepared from a new raw lignocellulosic material: ziziphus spina-christi seeds. Tunisia Journal of Chemical society, 14, 175-183.
 Kumar, A. (2013). Adsorptive removal of Rhodamine B (dye) using low cost adsorbents. Master Thesis. National Institute of Technology, Rourkela, India.
 Hui, T. S. & Zaini, M. A. A. (2015). Potassium hydroxide activation of activated carbon: a commentary. Carbon Letters, 16(4), 275-280.
 Lillo-Ródenas, M. A.; Cazorla-Amorós, D. & Linares-Solano, A. (2003). Understanding chemical reactions between carbons and NaOH and KOH: an insight into the chemical activation mechanism. Carbon, 41, 267.
 Rhoda, H. G. & Ideyonbe, O. (2015). Production of activated carbon and characterization from Snail Shell Waste (Helix pomatia). Advances in Chemical Engineering and Science, 5, 51-61.
 Khuri, A. I. (2017). Response surface methodology and its applications in agricultural and food sciences. Biomedical Biostatistics International Journal 5(5), 103-119.
 Sadri, M. S.; Alavi, M. R. & Arami, M. (2010). Coagulation / flocculation process for dye removal using sludge from water treatment plant: Optimization through response surface methodology. Journal of Hazardous Materials, 175, 651–657.
 Azeez, O. & Adekola, A. (2016). Sorption of 4-NA on activated kaolinitic clay and Jatropha activated carbon in aqueous solution. Jordarn journal of chemistry, 11(2), 128- 145.