Arts Literature & Linguistics
Received: 03 Jul 2018 , Published: 06 July 2018
Views: 48 , Download: 46
Language is a living entity that is always in constant change. It develops changes, modernizes and vanishes. In every language, there are items that die out and others develop by using different strategies or devices of word formation, such as derivation, to express the modern needs of a particular language community (Handhal 1998). The purpose of this research is to examine the lexical variations in Sang-ghshi and Sang-gami dialects of the Zaar (Sayawa) language with a view of analysing the areas of convergences and divergences between the two dialects. The study analyses those differences which are prominent in the dialects and also examines if these differences hinder communication among the speakers of these dialects. Therefore, the study adopts an eclectic approach by combining the generative dialectology approach to the study of dialects and a contrastive analysis to the study of lexical items. One hundred questionnaires were administered to native speakers of the two dialects in which one hundred lexical items were written and two columns were provided, one for each dialect. Other methods such as interview and observations were employed in data collection. The result from the study reveals some lexical and phonological differences found in the dialects. It also reveals some reasons for the variations such geographical features like rivers, mountains, migration and general distance. The findings further reveal that Sangh-ghshi dialect is frequently used in organised gathering either religious or political, as a result of their population and it is more acceptable by the people and other neighbouring languages and is more simplified and easy to learn by non Zaar speakers than Sangh-gami dialect. Most traditional songs and Radio programmes or presentations are conveniently presented with Sangh-ghshi dialect.
Akindele, F. &Adegbite,W. (1999). The Sociology and Politics of English in Nigeria; An Introduction. Ile-Ife O. A. U. Press Ltd.
Bernard Caron (2005). Za:r Dictionary, Grammar, Texts; InstitutFrancaisRechercheAfrique University of Ibadan, Nigeria
Britain, D. (2015). Dialectology, Southampton: Centre for Language, Linguisticsand Area Study, University of Southampton.
Chambers, J. K. &Trudgill P. (1998) Dialectology (second edition), Cambridge,
Cambridge University Press
------------------ (2007).Sociolinguistic: An Introduction to Language and Society. Hammondsworth: Pengiun.
Farinde,R.O. &Ojo,J.O.(2005). Introduction to Sociolinguistics: Lektay publishers. Lafiya Street, Mokola Ibadan, Oyo State, Nigeria.
Gregory, M. J. &Caroll, S. (1978). Language and Situation: Language Varieties and their Social Contexts; London: Routledge and Kengan Paul.
Greenberg, J. (1971). The Language of Africa. Bloomington: Indiana University.
Gumperz, J. J. (1962). Types Lingual Communities.London Macmillan.
Halliday, M. A. K. Mclutosh&Strevens, P. (1964).The Linguistic Sciences and Language Teaching; London: Longman.Hall, R. A. (1969). Introductory Linguistics; Delhi: MotialalBanarsidas.
Lado R. (1957). Linguistics across cultures; applied linguistics for language teachers. ann Arbor: University of Michigan Press.
Matthews P. H. (2007). The Concise Oxford Dictionary of Linguistics: SPI Publishers, Great Britain
Osisanwo, A. (2012). Fundamentals of English Phonetics and Phonology. Lagos: Femolus-Fetop Publishers
Petyt, K. M. (1980). The Study of Dialect: An Introduction to Dialectology. London: Andre
Syal, P., & Jindal, D. V. (2007). An Introduction to Linguistics: Language, grammar and Semantics.PHI Learning Private.Ltd.
...................... (2008). An Introduction to Linguistic: Language Grammar and Semantics. New Delhi: Prentice Hall of India.
Syal, P. & Jindal D. V. (2013).An Introduction to Linguistics: Language, grammar and Semantics. PHI Leaning Private Ltd, Rimjhim House, 111, patparganj Industrial Estate, Delhi.
Trudgill, P. (2002). Sociolinguistic variation and change; Oxford University Press.
Vajda, E. J. (2013). Dialectology. Retrieved from http://www.pandora.cii.wwu.edu/vajda/ling 201/test3materials/dialectology.htm
2006 Population and Housing Census of the Federal Republic of Nigeria Bauchi State: Priority Tables Volume 1 of the NPC.