Earth, Energy & Environment
Received: 23 Jun 2018 , Published: 23 June 2018
Views: 59 , Download: 29
Slaughterhouses in Batticaloa district usually discharge their wastewater into the nearby soil surface and water bodies without any adequate treatment, which causes serious and deleterious threat to surrounding environment. Therefore, there is a need to treat slaughterhouse wastewater before disposal is a necessity to protect public health and environment. Even though there are several techniques available for treating this wastewater, suitability and cost for the specific places are questionable. Therefore, this study was mainly focused to design, construct and evaluate the efficiency of constructed wetland and activated charcoal treatments for slaughterhouse wastewater on the parameters of chemical oxygen demand (COD), total dissolved solids (TDS), total suspended solids (TSS), nitrate, phosphate, biological oxygen demand (BOD) and pH. The wetland was constructed with the layers of coir fiber, gravel, and sand with the dimension of 1m x 1m x 0.3m. Cattail (Typha latifolia) plant was used as macrophytes and activated carbon (adsorbent) was produced from coconut shell with CaCl2 (activating agents). The results revealed that the activated carbon and constructed wetland were significantly differ in their efficacy on the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater (p>0.05). It was observed that increasing the retention time of treatment caused increase in the removal efficiency of both treatments. The maximum removal of COD, TSS, TDS, BOD5, NO3- and PO4- with constructed wetland were 77.5%, 88.7%, 71.3%, 93.3%, 68% and 85.8%, respectively while an activated charcoal reduced COD, TSS, TDS, BOD5, NO3- and PO4- as 74.8%, 92.5%, 79.9%, 92.6%, 47.4% and 67%, respectively. It is concluded that the constructed wetland has better performance than that of activated charcoal for the treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater with the special reference to nitrate, phosphate, BOD and COD. However, activated charcoal shows better performance especially for the removal of dissolved solids.
- Abbasi W.A., Stree M. A., 1999. Adsorption of uranium from aqueous solution using activated carbon. Separation Science and Technology 29: p. 1217- 1230.
- Akratos C. S., Papaspyros J. N. E., Tsihrintzis V. A., 2008. An artificial neural network model and design equations for BOD and COD removal prediction in horizontal subsurface flow constructed wetlands. Chemical Engineering Journal 143: p. 96-110.
- Andersson, J. L., Bastviken, S. K., Tonderski, K. S., 2005. Free water surface wetlands for wastewater treatment in Sweden: nitrogen and phosphorus removal. Water science and technology, 51(9): p. 31- 46.
- Barbera A.C., Borin M., Cirelli G.L., Toscano A., Maucieri C., 2015. Comparison of carbon balance in Mediterranean pilot constructed wetlands vegetated with different C4 plant species. Environmental Science Pollution Research 22: p. 2372–2383.
- Bastviken S., 2006. Nitrogen removal in treatment wetlands –Factors influencing spatial and temporal variations. Dissertation No 1041. Linköping University, Sweden.
- Bello Y. O., Oyedemi D. T. A., 2009. The impact of abattoir activities and management in residential neighbourhoods: A case study of Ogbomoso, Nigeria. Journal of Social Sciences 19 (2): p. 121-127.
- Bull, M. A., Sterritt, R. M., Lester, J. N., 1982. The treatment of wastewaters from the meat industry: A review. Environmental Technology Letters. 3, p. 117 126.
- Chaiwattananont R., Niyomwan N., Noda Y., 1998. Optimum condition for high quality activated carbon production from Thai raw materials. Thailand Institute of Scientific and Technological Research 6.
- Dalahmeh S., Pell M., Vinnerås B., Hylander L., Öborn I., Jönsson, H., 2012. Efficiency of bark, activated charcoal, foam and sand filters in reducing pollutants from Greywater. Water, Air, and Soil Pollution 223: p. 3657-3671.
- DeBusk W. F., 1999. Wastewater treatment wetlands: Applications and treatment efficiency. A fact sheet of the Soil and Water Science Department, Florida Cooperative Extension Service, Institute of Food and Agricultural Sciences, University of Florida.
- Dordio A. V., Teimão J., Ramalho I., Carvalho A. J. P., Candeias A. J. E., 2007. Selection of a support matrix for the removal of some phenoxyacetic compounds in constructed wetlands systems. Science Total Environment 380(1–3): p. 237-246.
- Duarte-Davidson R., Jones K. C., 1996. Screening the environmental fate of organic contaminants in sewage sludge applied to agricultural soils: II The potential for transfers to plants and grazing animals. Science Total Environment 185: p. 5970.
- Dufort, J. and Ruel, M. (1972). Peat moss as an adsorbing agent for the removal of coloring matter. Proc. 4th Int. Peat congr. Otaniemi. Finland, 288-310.
- EPA, Environmental protection Agency. 1988. Design manual: constructed wetlands and aquatic plants systems for municipal wastewater treatment. Washington, DC: EPA Office of Research and Development, p. 83.
- EPA, U. S. 2008. EPA's Report on the Environment (Roe) (2008 Final Report). U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Washington, D.C., EPA/600/R-07/045F (NTISPB2008-112484.
- Faulwetter J. L., Gagnon V., Sundberg C., Chazarenc F., Burr M. D., Brisson J, et al., 2009. Microbial processes influencing performance of treatment wetlands: A review. Ecological Engineering 35: p. 987–1004.
- Fink D.F., Mitsch W.A., 2004. Seasonal and storm event nutrient removal by a created wetland in an agricultural watershed. Ecological Engineering 23 (4-5): p. 313-325.
- Gauri S. M., 2006. Treatment of wastewater from abattoirs before land application: a review. Bioresource Technology, 97 (9): p. 1119–1135.
- Gravelle D.V., Landreville A., 1980. Caractérisation de la tourbe pour le traitement des eauxuséesd’abattoirs. The Canadian Journal of Chemical Engineering 58: p. 235-240.
- Hasani A. H., Naserkhaki E., 2016. Evaluation of nitrate removal from water using activated carbon and clinoptilolite by adsorption method. Bioscience Biotechnology Research Asia 13(2).
- Healy M., Rodgers M., Mulqueen J., 2007. Treatment of dairy wastewater using constructed wetlands and intermittent sand filters. Bioresource Technology, 98: p. 2268-81.
- Kadlec R. H., Knight R. L.,1996. Treatment Wetlands. New York: Lewis Publishers, CRC.
- Kadlec R. H., Wallace S. D., 2009. Treatment wetlands 2nd edition, CRC Press Taylor & Francis Group LLC, Boca Raton, ISBN 978-1-56670-526-4
- Lens P. N., Vochten P. M., Speleers L., Verstraete W. H., 1994. Direct treatment of domestic wastewater by percolation over peat, bark and woodchips. Water Research, 28(1): p. 17-26.
- Mall I. D., Srivastava V. C., Agarwall N. K., 2006. Removal of orange-G and methyl violet dyes by adsorption onto bagasse fly ash-kinetic study and equilibrium isotherm analyses. Dyes and Pigments 69(3): p. 210–223.
- Mander Ü., Tournebize J., Kasak K., Mitsch W.J., 2014. Climate regulation by free water surface constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment and created riverine wetlands. Ecological Engineering 72: p. 103-115.
- Mayes W. M., Batty L. C., Younger P. L., Jarvis A. P., Koiv M., Vohlc C., Mander U., 2009. Wetland treatment at extremes of pH: A review. Science of the Total Environment, 407(3): p. 944-957
- Michael N. N., Terry W. S., Graig L. B., 1988. Anaerobic contact pre-treatment of slaughterhouse wastewater. Proceeding Industrial Waste Conference p. 42: 647.
- Muhirwa D., Nhapi I., Wali U., Banadda N., Kashaigili J., Kimwaga R., 2010. Characterization of wastewater from an abattoir in Rwanda and the impact on downstream water quality. International Journal of Ecology & Development 16: p. 30- 46.
- Nisha M., Geena G., Pradeep K., Priya S., Georgette G., Febin M., 2016. Removal of dissolved solids in wastewater using activated carbon from coconut shell. Journal for Research 2(7): p. 5-7. ISSN: 2395-7549
- Picard C.R., Fraser L.H., Steer D., 2005. The interacting effects of temperature and plant community type on nutrient removal in wetland microcosms. Bioresource technology 96(9): p. 1039 – 1047.
- Qaisrani, Zahid & Zahid, Ibrar & Ullah, Asad & Malghani, Najam & Hussain, Shahnawaz & , Saddam & Siddique, Mohammad & Amin, Muhammad & Mushtaq, faisal & , Waqas & , A.Anwar & Kakar, Ehsanullah. (2016). MUNICIPAL WASTEWATER TREATMENT USING RICE HUSK AND KIKAR CHARCOAL AS ACTIVATED CARBON.
- Richard F., Dussert B., Kovacic S. (1996). Improved granular activated carbon for the stabilization of wastewater pH. ACS Division of Fuel Chemistry, Preprints 41(1): p. 456-458.
- Rodgers M., Mulqueen J., Healy M.G., 2004. Surface clogging in an intermittent stratified sand filter. Soil Science Society of America Journal 68: p. 1827-1832.
- Shahmoradi M., Seyedsalehi M., Amin Zade B., Torabian A., 2015. Removal of nitrate from groundwater using activated carbon prepared from rice husk and sludge of paper industry wastewater treatment. Journal of Engineering and Applied Sciences 10: p. 7856-7863.
- Sindilariu P.D., Brinker A., Reiter R., 2009. Factors influencing the efficiency of constructed wetlands used for the treatment of intensive trout farm effluent. Ecological Engineering 35(5): p 711-722.
- Siong Y. K., Atabaki M., Jamaliah I., 2013. Performance of activated carbon in water filters. Department of Material Engineering, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, University Teknologi, Malaysia.
- Sundaravadivel M. and Vigneswaran S., 2001. Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology 31(4): p. 351–409.
- Trois C., Polster A. 2007. Effective pines bark composting with the dome aeration technology. Waste Management 27(1): p. 96–105.
- Viraraghavan, T., Kikkeri, S. R., 1988. Peat filtration of food-processing wastewaters. Biol. Wastes, 26: p. 151-155.
- Vymazal J et al ., 1998. Types of constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. In: A Paper presented at the Sixth International Conference on Wetland Systems for Water Pollution Control, Aguas de Sao Pedro, Brazil.
- Vymazal J., 2005. Constructed wetlands for wastewater treatment. Ecological engineering 2: p. 472-478.
- Vymazal l., kropfelova l., 2008. Wastewater treatment in constructed wetland with horizontal subsurface flow, springer, Dordrecht.
- Yuh-Shan H., Chiang Tzu., Hsueh Yu-Mei., 2005. Removal of basic dyes from aqueous solution using tree fern as a biosorbent. Process Biochemistry 40: p. 119-124.