Biology and Life Sciences
Received: 23 Jun 2018 , Published: 23 June 2018
Views: 169 , Download: 68
|2||Mr .Shanmugalingam Srikrishnah|
|3||Dr. Somasundaram Sutharsan|
Backround and objective: Codiaeum variegatum var. “Bush on fire” is an ornamental foliage shrub with beautifully variegated glossy leaves. The vivid shiny leaves add value for its quality in the export market. Shade level greatly influences the amount of variegation in these plants. An experiment was conducted to investigate the effect of different shade levels on the growth and quality of C. variegatum var. “Bush on fire”, in the Batticaloa district at the crop farm, Eastern University, Vanthrumoolai, Sri Lanka . Materias and method: Graded level of shades were defined as treatments viz. open field (T1), 50% (T2), 60% (T3), 70% (T4), and 80% (T5) of shade levels. The experiment was arranged in a completely randomized design with twenty replicates. Measurements were taken at monthly interval and Analysis of Variance was performed to determine significant difference among treatments (p< 0.05). Results: The results revealed that plants grown at 50% shade level showed significantly (p<0.05) better performance in measured growth parameters viz. plant height, plant biomass and biomass partitioning, while the lowest performance was observed in plants grown at 80% (T5) shade level. In quality evaluation, plants grown at open field (T1) received significantly highest score. Further plants grown at open field showed compactness, appropriate leaf size and increased leaf thickness.Conclusion: From this study it could be concluded that, plants grown at 50% shade level would have received optimum light level as the growth of the plants was higher. However, open field condition is suitable for export oriented cultivation of C.variegatum var. “Bush on fire” in the Batticaloa district as the quality of the plants was high. Therefore these findings are helpful for the commercial level cultivation of Codiaeum variegatum var. “Bush on fire”in the batticaloa district.
1.Asma, N., Ali, K. and Khan, S. (2008). In vitro propagation of croton (Codiaeum variegatum). Pakistan Journal of Botany, 40(1): 99-107. Available from:https://pdfs.semanticscholar.org/18aa/9f5b1790b55b3b2e3283fd17e5ef900e9b80.pdf [Accessed 23 July 2017].
2. Kumara ,G.K.K.P., Angunawela, R.K. and Weerakkody ,W.A.P.(2007). Plant selection, pre-harvest treatments and post-harvest management to prolong the vase-life of shoot cuttings of Codiaeum variegatum (croton). Journal of the National Science Foundation of Sri Lanka, 35(3): 153-159 . Available from:http://dl.nsf.ac.lk/bitstream/handle/1/6295/JNSF-35%283%29-153.pdf?sequence=2 [Accessed 13 July 2017].
3. Brown, B.F. (2008). A Codiaeum Encyclopedia Crotons of the World . Available from: http://www.karen-fukuhara.com/a-codiaeum-encyclopedia-crotons-of-the-world.pdf (Accessed 2 September 2017).[Accessed 26 June 2017].
4.Magdalita, P.M., Torreta, N.K. and Sotto, R.C. (2014). Characterization of Phenotypic Variation in Selected Croton [Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Rhumph. ex A. Juss.] Varieties and Natural Mutants. Journal of Nature Studies, 13 (2): 41-55 . Available from: http://citeseerx.ist.psu.edu/viewdoc/download?doi=10.1.1.673.8796&rep=rep1&type=pdf(Accessed on: 24 September 2017).
5. Gilman, E.F. (1999). Codiaeum variegatum. Available from: http://hort.ifas.ufl.edu/database/documents/pdf/shrub_fact_sheets/codvara.pdf(Accessed on: 02 September 2017).
6. Chen, J. and Stamps, R.H. (2006). Cutting propagation of foliage plants. pp. 203–228. In: Dole, J.M., Gibson, J.L. (Eds).Cutting Propagation: A Guide to Propagating and Producing Floriculture Crops. Ball Publishing, Batavia, IL.
7.Mollicka, A.S., Shimojia, H., Dendab, T., Yokotab, M. and Yamasakia, H. (2011).Croton Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume cultivars characterized by leaf phenotypic parameters. Article in Scientia Horticulturae , 132: 71–79. Available from: https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/41381228/Croton_Codiaeum_variegatum_L._Blume_cu20160121-29913-6k6wst.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=1520959894&Signature=LP1d4t7dmYomVnA3X0cI39BoI1I%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DCroton_Codiaeum_variegatum_L._Blume_cult.pdf
8.Hettiarachchi ,M.P. and Balas, J. (2005). Croton (Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume ‘Excellent’): An Evaluation of Foliage Performance after Shipment and of Vase Water Treatments to Maintain Vase Life . Acta horticulturae, 669:343-350. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Johannes_Balas/publication/268271868_Croton_Codiaeum_variegatum_L_Blume_'Excellent'_An_Evaluation_of_Foliage_Performance_after_Shipment_and_of_Vase_Water_Treatments_to_Maintain_Vase_Life/links/57443b5708ae9ace841bd80c.pdf [Accessed 22 July 2017].
9.Weerakkody, W.A.P. (2004). Horticulture in Sri Lanka. Chronica Hort, 44: 23-27. Available from:
10.Ranjith,B.M.(2011). Dry zone soils of srilanka. Available from: http://www.island.lk/index.php?page_cat=article-details&page=article-details&code_title=33078 (Accessed on: 10 November 2017).
11.Jeyakumar, P., Premanatharajah, P. and Mahendran, S. (2002).Water quality of agro-wells in the coastal area of the Batticaloa District. Proceedings on the Use of GroundWater for Agriculture in Sri Lanka ,pp.99-107.
12.Agoramoorthy, G. and Hsu, M. J. (2012). Impact of floriculture development enhances livelihood of India’s rural women. Journal of Agriculture and Rural Development in the Tropics and Subtropics, 113(1): 69-76. Available from: file:///C:/Users/for%20u/AppData/Local/Packages/Microsoft.MicrosoftEdge_8wekyb3d8bbwe/TempState/Downloads/480-1944-1-PB.pdf [Accessed 17 August 2017].
13.Ogunwenmo, K.O., Idowu, O.A., Innocent , C., Esau, E.B.and Oyelana, O.A. (2007). Cultivars of [Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Blume.] (Euphorbiaceae) show variability in phytochemical and cytological characteristics. African Journal of Biotechnology ,6(20):2400-2405. Available from:file:///C:/Users/for%20u/AppData/Local/Packages/Microsoft.MicrosoftEdge_8wekyb3d8bbwe/TempState/Downloads/58071-102504-1-PB.pdf (Accessed on: 15 November 2017).
14.Supaporn, S., Supachitra, C. and Boon-Long ,P. (2000). Adaptation of croton ‘Baisom’ [Codiaeum variegatum (L.) Bl. ‘Baisom’] leaves to different light intensities. Journal of scientific research , 25(2):257-269. Available from: https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/45525868/Adaptation_of_Croton_Baisom_Codiaeum_20160510-14692-l6t6kv.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=1521004073&Signature=pg6KcufGLHiailx6t6UgNWDWP8E%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DAdaptation_of_Croton_Baisom_Codiaeum_var.pdf [Accessed 21 August 2017].
15.Prasad, S. and Kumar, U. (2003). Principles of Horticulture(2nd Edition), Agrobios, Jodhpur, 191-193.
16.Stamps , R .H. (1997). Effects of production shade levels on leaf/ stem size and vase life of three herbaceous perennials. Proceedings of Florida State Horticultural Science , 109: 309– 310.
17.Elad ,Y., Messika ,Y., Brand ,M., David, D. R. and Sztejnberg ,A. (2007). Effect of colored shade nets on pepper powdery mildew (Leveillula taurica). Phytoparasitica , 35: 285–99. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Yigal_Elad/publication/225169929_Effect_of_colored_shade_nets_on_pepper_powdery_mildew_Leveillula_taurica/links/55fc01fd08ae07629e07d18b.pdf (Accessed on: 25 November 2017).
18.Gaurav, A. K., Raju, D. V .S. , Janakiram ,T., Sing, B., Jain, R. and Gopala krishnan,S. (2015). Effect of shade levels on production and quality of cordyline (Cordyline terminalis). Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences ,85 (7): 931–5. Available from: https://s3.amazonaws.com/academia.edu.documents/46430741/Abhay_paper.pdf?AWSAccessKeyId=AKIAIWOWYYGZ2Y53UL3A&Expires=1520780087&Signature=7nkauyWRth9j%2FUG87RQPzpZv6Ek%3D&response-content-disposition=inline%3B%20filename%3DEffect_of_shade_levels_on_production_and.pdf [Accessed 21 June 2017].
19.Anon (2018). Climate & Weather Averages in Batticaloa, Sri Lanka .Available from: https://www.timeanddate.com/weather/sri-lanka/batticaloa/climate Accessed 20 July 2017].
20. Zhang, Y.J., Yan, F. and Gao, H. (2015). Chlorophyll Content, Leaf Gas Exchange and Growth of Oriental Lily as Affected by Shading. Russian Journal of Plant Physiology ,62(3): 334-339. Available from: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1134/S1021443715030206 [Accessed 11 August 2017].
21. Kasai, M. (2008). Effect of growing soybean plants under continuous light on leaf photosynthetic rate and other characteristics concerning biomass production. Journal of Agronomy, 7(2): 156-162. Available from: https://scialert.net/fulltext/?doi=ja.2008.156.162 [Accessed 6 July 2017].
22. Kremer, E. and Kropff , M.J.(1999).Comparative growth of triazine-susceptible and-resistant biotypes of Solanum nigrum at different light levels. Annals of Botany, 83:637-644. , Available from :https://doi.org/10.1006/anbo.1999.0870 [Accessed 25 June 2017].
23. Anjana Devkota and Pramod Kumar Jha . (2010). Effect of different light levels on the growth traits and yield of Centella asiatica. Middle-East Journal of Scientific Research, 5(4): 226-230. Available from: https://www.idosi.org/mejsr/mejsr5(4)/6.pdf [Accessed 2 July 2017].
24. Ben , G. B. (2011).What is Light Intensity, Effects on Plant Growth. Online at: http://www.cropsreview.com/light-intensity.html. (Accessed 2 August 2017).
25. Srikrishnah, S., Sutharsan ,S., Thanusha ,R. and Paskaran, A. (2017). Effect of graded shade levels on the growth and qualities of Dracaena sanderiana var. ‘Celes’ . Research Journal of Agriculture and Forestry Sciences, 5(3): 1-4. Available from:file:///C:/Users/for%20u/Downloads/1.ISCA-RJAFS-2017-002.pdf [Accessed 14 July 2017].
26. Manaker, GH. 1981. Interior Plantscapes: Installation, Maintenance, and Management. Englewood Cliffs, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 283 p.
27. Mattana, R. S., Ming, L.C., Marchese, J.A. and Marques, M.O.M. (2006). Biomass production in plants of Pothomorphe umbellata (L.) Miq. submitted to different shade levels. Revista Brasileira de Plantas Medicinais (Brazilian Journal of Medical and Biological Research), 8: 83-85. Available from: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/242517760_Biomass_production_in_plants_of_Pothomorphe_umbellata_L_Miq_submitted_to_differents_shade_levels [Accessed 12 September 2017].
28. Fini, A., Ferrini, F., Frangi, P., Amoroso, G. and Giordano, C. (2010). Growth, leaf gas exchange and leaf anatomy of three ornamental shrubs grown under different light intensities. European Journal of Horticultural Science, 1:111-117. Available from: https://flore.unifi.it/retrieve/handle/2158/395419/13848/ejhs_28-09.pdf [Accessed 21 June 2017].
29. Samarakoon, S. P., Wilson, J. R. and Shelton, H. M. (1990). Growth, morphology and nutritive quality of shaded Stenotaphrum secundatum, Axonopus compressus and Pennisetum clandestinum. The Journal of Agricultural Science, 114(2): 161-169. doi:10.1017/S0021859600072154
30. Sarijeva, G., Knapp, M.and Lichtenthaler, H. K. (2007). Differences in photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll and carotenoid levels, and in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in green sun and shade leaves of Ginkgo and Fagus. Journal of plant physiology, 164(7): 950-955. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jplph.2006.09.002 [Accessed 24 June 2017].
31. Alvarez, S. and Sanchez-Blanco, M.J. (2013).Changes in growth rate, root morphology and water use ef?ciency of potted Callistemon citrinus plants in response to different levels of water de?cit. Scientia horticulturae, 156:54-62. Available from:https://doi.org/10.1016/j.scienta.2013.03.024 [Accessed 6 September 2017].
32.Kawamura , K. and Takeda, H.(2004).Rules of crown development in the clonal shrub Vaccinium hirtum in a low-light understory: A quantitative analysis of architecture. Canadian Journal of Botany, 82:329–339. Available from: https://doi.org/10.1139/b04-001 [Accessed 21 June 2017].
33. Goncalves , J. F. D. C., Marenco, R. A . and Vieira ,G. (2001). Concentration of photosynthetic pigments and chlorophyll fluorescence of mahogany and tonka bean under two light environments. Revista Brasileira de Fisiologia Vegetal, 13(2):149-157. Available from: http://www.scielo.br/scielo.php?pid=S0103-31312001000200004&script=sci_abstract [Accessed 23 September 2017 ].
34. Kim, J., Kang, S. W., Pak, C. H., & Kim, M. S. (2012). Changes in leaf variegation and coloration of English ivy and polka dot plant under various indoor light intensities. HortTechnology, 22(1), 49-55. Available from: http://horttech.ashspublications.org/content/22/1/49.full [Accessed 21 May 2017].