Earth, Energy & Environment
Received: 01 Jun 2018 , Published: 03 June 2018
Views: 102 , Download: 42
|1||Amoke, A.I. and Uzoegbu, M.U.|
The study area is located in the Port Harcourt Metropolis. It is bounded by latitudes 4o 44? 30? and 4o 44? 50?N and longitudes 7o 03? 0? to 7o 03? 40?E covering an area of about 342 Km2. It lies on the average altitude of 15m above sea level, and is structurally in low land, typically made up of flat mangroves swamp and devoid of rock outcrops with poor drainage pattern. Five (5) samples of groundwater collected from the study area from both deep (about 60m) and shallow hand-dug wells, following the standard procedure as prescribed by APHA Guidelines. The analysis was achieved using Direct reading Photometer (Hanna model), Titrimetric method, and Flame photometer (FPF9 Jenwy model).The interpretation of groundwater chemistry of the samples suggest that most of the samples analyzed are within the WHO and Nigerian Standards for drinking, while some have concentrations beyond desirable limits. However, the concentrations of some compounds such as nitrate, slightly above permissible limits in the samples analyzed have created a concern over the suitability of the water for drinking and other domestic uses. The assessment of water for irrigation indicates that most of the samples are suitable for irrigational purposes. The result of the laboratory analysis revealed that the selected ions were present in varying concentrations in the study area. The chemical parameters of water samples from the hand-dug wells were plotted using histogram and revealed interaction between the groundwater and aquifer materials, and identified important data trends and groupings.
Akaegbobi IM, Schmitt M (1998). Organic facies, hydrocarbon source potential and the reconstruction of depositional paleoenvironment of Campano- Maastrichtian Nkporo shale in the Cretaceous Anambra Basin, Nigeria NAPE Bull., 13(1), 1-19.
Avbobbo AA, Ogbe FG (1978). Tertiary lithostratigraphy of Niger Delta American Association Petroleum Geology Bulletin, v. 62, 295- 306.
Badusha, M. and Santhosh, S. (2017), Seasonal Effects of Water Quality Changes in Neyyar River, Kerala, India International Journal of Scientific and Research Publications, 7(7), pp. 703 -710
Bustin RM (1988). Sedimentology and characteristics of dispersed organic matter in Tertiary Niger Delta: origin of source rocks in a deltaic environment: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 72, p. 277-298.
Doust H, Omatsola E (1990). Niger Delta, in , Edwards, J. D., and Santogrossi, P.A., eds., Divergent/passive Margin Basins, AAPG Memoir 48: Tulsa, American Association of Petroleum Geologists, p. 239-248.
Ejedawe JE, Coker SJL, Lambert-Aikhionbare DO, Alofe KB, Adoh FO (1984). Evolution of oil-generative window and oil and gas occurrence in Tertiary Niger Delta Basin: American Association of Petroleum Geologists, v. 68, p. 1744-1751.
Etu-Efeotor, J.O 1981: Preliminary Hydrochemical Investigations of Sub-Surface Water in parts of the Niger Delta Nigeria. Jour.Min.Geol. 18 (10; ppl03-105)
Etu-Efeotor, J.O and Akpokodje; E.G 1990: Aquifer Systems of the Niger Delta. Journal of Mining and Geology Vol 26 No2 pp 279-284.
Evamy BD, Hareboure J, Kemerling P, Knaap WA, Molly FA, Rowland PH (1978). Hydrocarbon habitat of Tertiary Niger Delta: American Association Petroleum Geology, V62, 1-39.
Frankl FJ, Cordry EA (1967). The Niger Delta oil province recent development onshore and offshore: Maxico city, 7th would Petroleum congress proceedings, V. 1B 195-208.
Haack RC, Sundaraman P, Diedjomahor JO, Xiao H, Gant NJ, May ED, Kelsch K (2000). The Niger Delta petroleum systems, Nigeria. In: Mello, M.R., Katz, B.J. (Eds.), Petroleum Systems of South Atlantic Margins. American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, vol. 73, pp. 213–231.
Hems J.D 1970: Study and Interpretation of the Chemical Characteristic of Natural Water Geological Surveys, pp 14-12.
Mary Ann H. Franson, Lenore S.C, Arnold E.G, and Andrew D.E (edition) 1998: Standard Methods for the Examination of Water and Waste Water, 2nd Edition A PH A Office, Washington, USA.
Nwachukwu JI, Chukwurah PI (1986). Organic matter of Agbada Formation, Niger Delta, Nigeria: American Association of Petroleum Geologists Bulletin, v. 70, p. 48-55.
Reijers TJA (1996). Selected Chapters on Geology-sedimentary Geology and Sequence Stratigraphy in Nigeria. SPDC Course Handbook (Field Guide) 121p.
Sanjay P. (2010). Deep Wells and Prudence: Towards Pragmatic Action for Addressing Groundwater Over exploitation in India. Published by World Bank, pp1-19.
Short, K.C. and Stauble, A.J. (1967). American Association Petroleum Geology Bulletin, 51,716.
Tahir, A.G., Garba, M.L. and Hamidu, I. (2015), Hydrogeology and Groundwater Quality of Deep and Shallow Boreholes in Kano Metropolis, Northwestern Nigeria. Journal of Environment and Earth Science, 5(1), pp. 160 -166
Washington Department of Ecology, Olympia, WA, “water quality standards for surface water of the state of Washington, Washington administrative code (WAC) chapter 173-201A. November 18, 1997.
Weber, K.J. and (1987). Hydrocarbon distribution patterns in Nigerian growth fault structures controlled by structural style and stratigraphy: Journal of Petroleum Science and Engineering, v. 1, p. 91-104.
Weber KJ, Daukoru EM (1975). Petroleum geology of the Niger Delta: Proceedings of the Ninth World Petroleum Congress, volume 2, Geology: London, Applied Science Publishers, Ltd., p. 210-221.