Medicine, Health & Food

Medicine, Health & Food

Join as an Editor/Reviewer

Effects of maternal psychosocial and family sosioeconomics on cancer treatment compliance in children

Volume: 60  ,  Issue: 1 , September    Published Date: 08 September 2020
Publisher Name: IJRP
Views: 63  ,  Download: 16
DOI: 10.47119/IJRP100601920201413


# Author Name
1 Linda Wati
2 Selvi Nafianti
3 Elmeida Effendy


Background: Childhood cancer is a chronic life-threatening disease and requires a variety of therapies. The key to successful treatment is early detection and treatment adherence. Parental psychosocial and socioeconomics are factors that support a successful treatment. Objective: To determine the differences in the influence of maternal psychosocial and socioeconomics on adherence to cancer treatment in children. Method: A cohort study in pediatric patients with cancer and their mothers who were treated at Haji Adam Malik General Hospital, Medan in June 2019-April 2020. Maternal psychosocial assessment with the IES-R questionnaire after knew the diagnosis of cancer in her child and socioeconomic assessment through a questionnaire. Cancer treatment adherence was assessed for six months undergoing treatment. Bivariate analysis used the fisher's exact test to assess differences in the effect of each variable. Result: Of the 47 subjects observed, it was found 14.9% of children with cancer were not adherent the treatment. For the research data analyzed there was no significant difference between maternal psychosocial status, education and occupation of the mother, and residence ownership towards the adherence to cancer treatment in children. Total family income had a significant effect on adherence to cancer treatment in children (p = 0.042), even though all patients used the National Health Insurance (JKN). Conclusion: Total amount of family income used as an indicator of socioeconomic status has an influence on adherence of cancer treatment in children.


  • Maternal psychosocial; socioeconomic; cancer treatment adherence; cancer in children
  • References

    Abrahão, R., Lichtensztajn, D. Y., Ribeiro, R. C., Marina, N. M., Keogh, R. H., Marcos?Gragera, R., ... & Keegan, T. H., 2015. Racial/ethnic and Socioeconomic Disparities in Survival Among Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in California, 1988–2011: A population?based Observational Study,   p. 1819-1825.

    Adam, M., Rueegg, C. S., Schmidlin, K., Spoerri, A., Niggli, F., Grotzer, M., ... & Kuehni, C. E., 2016. Socioeconomic Disparities in Childhood Cancer Survival in Switzerland, International Journal of Cancer 138, p. 2856-2866.

    Adler, N. E., & Newman, K., 2002. Socioeconomic Disparities in Health: Pathways and Policies,  , p. 60-76.

    Arora, R. S., Eden, T., & Pizer, B., 2007. The Problem of Treatment Abandonment in Children from Developing Countries with Cancer, Pediatric Blood & Cancer 49, p. 941-946.

    Badan Pusat Statistik., 2002. Penjelasan, in “Klasifikasi Baku Jenis Pekerjaan Indonesia”. Badan Pusat Statistik, Jakarta, p. v-xxi.

    Best, M., Streisand, R., Catania, L., & Kazak, A. E., 2001. Parental Distress During Pediatric Leukemia and Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms (PTSS) After Treatment Ends,  , p. 299-307.

    Bleyer, A., Ritchey, A. K., Friehling, E., 2016. Principle of Treatment, in “Nelson Textbook of Pediatrics” R. M. Kiegman, B. F. Stanton, J. W. St Geme, N. F. Schor, Editor. Elsevier, Kanada, p. 2426-2436.

    Bonilla, M., Rossell, N., Salaverria, C., Gupta, S., Barr, R., Sala, A., ... & Sung, L., 2009. Prevalence and Predictors of Abandonment of Therapy Among Children with Cancer in El Salvador,  , p. 2144-2146.

    Davies, H. A., & Lilleyman, J. S., 1995. Compliance with Oral Chemotherapy in Childhood Lymphoblastic Leukaemia,  , p. 93-103.

    Dockerty, J. D., Skegg, D. C. G., & Williams, S. M., 2003. Economic Effects of Childhood Cancer on Families,  , p. 254-258.

    Gerhardt, C. A., Lehmann, V., Long, K. A., & Alderfer, M. A., 2015. Supporting Siblings as a Standard of Care in Pediatric Oncology,  , p. S750-S804.

    Harper, F. W., Penner, L. A., Peterson, A., Albrecht, T. L., & Taub, J., 2012. Children's Positive Dispositional Attributes, Parents’ Empathic Responses, and Children's Responses to Painful Pediatric Oncology Treatment Procedures,  , p. 593-613.

    Jabeen, K., Ashraf, M. S., Iftikhar, S., & Belgaumi, A. F., 2016. The Impact of Socioeconomic Factors on the Outcome of Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia (ALL) Treatment in a Low/middle Income Country (LMIC),  , p. 587-596.

    Kazak, A. E., Barakat, L. P., Alderfer, M., Rourke, M. T., Meeske, K., Gallagher, P. R., ... & Stuber, M. L., 2001. Posttraumatic Stress in Survivors of Childhood Cancer and Mothers: Development and Validation of the Impact of Traumatic Stressors Interview Schedule (ITSIS),  , p. 307-323.

    Kazak, A. E., Boeving, C. A., Alderfer, M. A., Hwang, W. T., & Reilly, A., 2005. Posttraumatic Stress Symptoms During Treatment in Parents of Children with Cancer,  , p. 7405-7410.

    Kohlsdorf, M., & Costa Junior, Á. L., 2012. Psychosocial Impact of Pediatric Cancer on Parents: A Literature Review,  , p. 119-129.

    Kohn, R., Wintrob, R. M., Alarcon, R. D., 2009. Transcultural Psychiatry, in “Kaplan & Sadock’s Comprehensive textbook of psychiatry” B. J. Sadock, V. A. Sadock, P. Ruiz, Editor. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins, Philadelphia, p. 735-753.

    Manne, S. L., Jacobsen, P. B., Gorfinkle, K., Gerstein, F., & Redd, W. H., 1993. Treatment Adherence Difficulties Among Children With Cancer: The role of Parenting Style, Journal of Pediatric Psychology 18, p. 47-62.

    McGrath, P., Paton, M. A., & Huff, N., 2005. Beginning Treatment for Pediatric Acute Myeloid Leukemia: The Family Connection,  , p. 97-114.

    McGrath, P., 2001. Findings on the Impact of Treatment for Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukaemia on Family Relationships,  , p. 229-237.

    Mogensen, H., Modig, K., Tettamanti, G., Erdmann, F., Heyman, M., & Feychting, M., 2018. Survival After Childhood Cancer–Social Inequalities in High-Income Countries, Frontiers in Oncology 8, p. 485.

    Mostert, S., Gunawan, S., Wolters, E., van de Ven, P. M., Sitaresmi, M. N., van Dongen, J., ... & Kaspers, G. J. L., 2012. Socio-economic Status Plays Important Roles in Childhood Cancer Treatment Outcome in Indonesia,  , p. 6491-6496.

    Mostert, S., Sitaresmi, M. N., Gundy, C. M., & Veerman, A. J., 2006. Influence of Socioeconomic Status on Childhood Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia Treatment in Indonesia,  , p.e1600-e1606.

    Okado, Y., Tillery, R., Howard Sharp, K., Long, A. M., & Phipps, S., 2016. Effects of Time Since Diagnosis on the Association Between Parent and Child Distress in Families with Pediatric Cancer,  , p. 303-322.

    Okumu, R. A., Muiva, M., Wagoro, M., Abdallah, F., & Oweya, E., 2017. Association Between Socioeconomic and Psychological Experiences of Parents with Children on Leukemia Treatment in Kenyatta National Hospital, Kenya,  , p. 38.

    Osterberg, L., & Blaschke, T., 2005. Adherence to Medication,  , p. 487-497.

    Perricone, G., Polizzi, C., Morales, M. R., Marino, S., & Scacco, C. F., 2012. Functioning of Family System in Pediatric Oncology During Treatment Phase,  , p. 652-662.

    Presiden Republik Indonesia. Kumpulan peraturan jaminan kesehatan. 2013 January 18 [accessed 22th February 2019]. Available from:

    Pritchard, M. T., Butow, P. N., Stevens, M. M., & Duley, J. A., 2006. Understanding Medication Adherence in Pediatric Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia: A Review, Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 28, p. 816-823.

    Purnamasari, R., Rini, A. T., 2018. Persiapan kemoterapi, in “Buku Ajar Hematologi Onkologi Anak” E. Windiastuti, Y. M. Nency, S. Mulatsih, B. Sudarmanto, I. D. G. Urgasena, Editor. IDAI, Jakarta, p. 270-275.

    Pusat Data dan Informasi Kementerian Kesehatan Republik Indonesia. Situasi penyakit kanker. 2015 Juny [accessed 2th February 2019]. Available from:

    Rabineau, K. M., Mabe, P. A., & Vega, R. A., 2008. Parenting Stress in Pediatric Oncology Populations, Journal of Pediatric Hematology/Oncology 30, p. 358-365.

    Smith, M. A., Seibel, N. L., Altekruse, S. F., Ries, L. A., Melbert, D. L., O'Leary, M., ... & Reaman, G. H., 2010. Outcomes for Children and Adolescents with Cancer: Challenges for the Twenty-first Century,  , p. 2625.

    Streisand, R., Braniecki, S., Tercyak, K. P., & Kazak, A. E., 2001. Childhood Illness-Related Parenting Stress: the Pediatric Inventory for Parents, Journal of Pediatric Psychology 26, p. 155-162.

    Svavarsdottir, E. K., 2005. Gender and Emotions: Icelandic Parents Experiencing Childhood Cancer,  , p. 531-538.

    Wang, J., Shen, N., Zhang, X., Shen, M., Xie, A., Howell, D., & Yuan, C., 2017. Care Burden and Its Predictive Factors in Parents of Newly Diagnosed Children with Acute Lymphoblastic Leukemia in Academic Hospitals in China,  , p. 3703-3713.

    Wong, M. Y. F., & Chan, S. W. C., 2006. The Qualitative Experience of Chinese Parents with Children Diagnosed of Cancer,  , p. 710-717.

    Yeh, C. H., 2002. Gender Differences of Parental Distress in Children with Cancer,  , p. 598-606.