Biology and Life Sciences

Biology and Life Sciences

Join as an Editor/Reviewer

The effect of pH on roots, shoots, leaves and germination rate during the early developmental stage of cowpea (Vigna unguiculata L.)

Volume: 59  ,  Issue: 1 , August    Published Date: 06 September 2020
Publisher Name: IJRP
Views: 60  ,  Download: 17
DOI: 10.47119/IJRP100591820201383


# Author Name
1 Kefas Luka Baiyi
2 Isaac Hyeladi Malgwi


Cowpea is a rich and cheap source of protein for both human and animal consumption. However, cowpea production is on a decline due to current environmental factors such as soil acidity, drought, and heat. This experiment was carried out to observe how five different pH levels (4, 5, 6, 7 and 9) could affect the germination rate and to analyze the relationship between root growth and shoot and leaf development. For each pH level, 25 seed samples were used to determine the germination rate. At 24hrs, there was little variation of germinated seeds based on the different pH, while at 72hrs, all seed samples regardless of the pH level attained a 100% germination rate. Three out of the 25 germinated seeds were randomly selected and grown in a liquid media under a controlled environment for three weeks. Fresh and dry weight of leaves, shoots and roots were measured. Pearson’s correlation showed a strong negative relationship between the number of leaves and root length with high significance (P<0.01), this negative correlation could be important in pasture design for animal husbandry as vegetative cover takes greater precedence over root growth. Although, the number of leaves was the same for pH7 and pH9, however, the latter had the lowest leaf mass while the former had the highest, the difference in their masses could be because of low water flow and hydraulic conductivity at lower pH. Also, other correlations were observed between traits such as masses of shoots, roots, leaves.


  • germination rate
  • pH
  • root
  • shoot
  • leaf
  • References

    1              Boukar, O., Bhattacharjee, R., Fatokun, C., Kumar, P.L. and Gueye, B. (2013) Genetic and Genomic Resources of Grain Legume Improvement: 6. Cowpea. Elsevier Inc. Chapters.

    2               FAO, 2013. FAO, Rome, Italy | Feedipedia.

    3              Boukar, O., Massawe, F., Muranaka, S., Franco, J., Maziya-Dixon, B., Singh, B. and Fatokun, C. (2011) Evaluation of Cowpea Germplasm Lines for Protein and Mineral Concentrations in Grains. Plant Genetic Resources, Cambridge University Press, 9, 515–522.

    4              Maynard, D.N. (2008) Underutilized and Underexploited Horticultural Crops. Hortscience, American Society for Horticultural Science, 43, 279a–279a.

    5              Som, M.G. and Hazra, P. (1993) Cowpea. Genetic Improvement of Vegetable Crops, Elsevier, 339–354.

    6              Fabian, G., Malgwi, I.H., Nyako, H.D., Yahaya, M.M. and Mohammed, I.D. (2015) DEVELOPMENT OF TOTAL MIXED RATIONS FOR RUMINANTS AND THEIR RUMEN DEGRADATION CHARACTERISTICS IN A SEMI ARID ENVIRONMENT OF NIGERIA. Wayamba Journal of Animal Science, Wayamba University of Sri Lanka, 7, 1084–1088.

    7              Harrison, H.F., Thies, J.A., Fery, R.L. and Smith, J.P. (2006) Evaluation of Cowpea Genotypes for Use as a Cover Crop. HortScience, American Society for Horticultural Science, 41, 1145–1148.

    8              el Zahar Haichar, F., Santaella, C., Heulin, T. and Achouak, W. (2014) Root Exudates Mediated Interactions Belowground. Soil Biology and Biochemistry, Elsevier, 77, 69–80.

    9              Miransari, M. (2011) Interactions between Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi and Soil Bacteria. Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, Springer, 89, 917–930.

    10           Bonfante, P. and Anca, I.-A. (2009) Plants, Mycorrhizal Fungi, and Bacteria: A Network of Interactions. Annual review of microbiology, Annual Reviews, 63, 363–383.

    11           Haling, R.E., Simpson, R.J., Culvenor, R.A., Lambers, H. and Richardson, A.E. (2011) Effect of Soil Acidity, Soil Strength and Macropores on Root Growth and Morphology of Perennial Grass Species Differing in Acid-Soil Resistance. Plant, Cell & Environment, Wiley Online Library, 34, 444–456.

    12           Jati, I., Vadivel, V. and Biesalski, H.K. (2013) Antioxidant Activity of Anthocyanins in Common Legume Grains. Bioactive Food as Dietary Interventions for Liver and Gastrointestinal Disease, Elsevier, 485–497.

    13           Gentili, R., Ambrosini, R., Montagnani, C., Caronni, S. and Citterio, S. (2018) Effect of Soil PH on the Growth, Reproductive Investment and Pollen Allergenicity of Ambrosia Artemisiifolia L. Frontiers in plant science, Frontiers, 9, 1335.

    14           Duncan, R.R. (2000) Plant Tolerance to Acid Soil Constraints: Genetic Resources, Breeding Methodology, and Plant Improvement. Plant-Environment Interactions, CRC Press, 15–52.

    15           Goel, R.K. and Rao, J.K. (2004) Oak Tasar Culture: Aboriginal of Himalayas. APH Publishing.

    16           Kamaluddin, M. and Zwiazek, J.J. (2004) Effects of Root Medium PH on Water Transport in Paper Birch (Betula Papyrifera) Seedlings in Relation to Root Temperature and Abscisic Acid Treatments. Tree Physiology, Heron Publishing, 24, 1173–1180.