Medicine, Health & Food

Medicine, Health & Food

Sodium arsenite induced hepatotoxicity and the ameliorative effects of combined extracts of Allium sativum and Gongronema latifolium in rats

Volume: 56  ,  Issue: 1 , July    Published Date: 18 July 2020
Publisher Name: IJRP
Views: 80  ,  Download: 35
DOI: 10.47119/IJRP100561720201310


# Author Name
1 Usoh, I. F.
2 Akpan, H. D.
3 Akwa, Nsikan. Etukudo
4 Ekaidem, I. S.
5 Umoh, E. U.


Abstract This study evaluates the ameliorative combined effects of combined extract of Allium sativum and Gongronema latifolium in sodium arsenite induced hepatotoxicity in rats. Fifty male rats were obtained and used, sustained with commercial rat feed and water. The rats were grouped into ten groups of five rats each. Group1 rats were the normal control, Groups 2, 3 and 4 were treated for different durations with 10mg/kg bw of sodium arsenite, Groups 5 and 6 rats were treated with 200mg/kg bw of Gongronema latifolium and Allium sativum, and 10mg/kg bw of sodium arsenite, respectively. Groups 7 and 8 were treated with 200mg/kg bw of Gongronema latifolium and Allium sativum, respectively. Group 10 rats were treated with 100mg/kg bw each of Gongronema latifolium and Allium sativum. The extracts and sodium arsenite were administered orally and intraperitoneally respectively. After seven days of treatments, the rats were sacrificed and blood sample was collected for liver function indices, and also the liver for histological analysis. The results indicated that the liver of the rats treated with different durations of the toxicant suffered different degrees of damage while the single extracts and toxicant treated groups indicated minimal hepatotoxicity when compared to the groups treated with sodium arsenite alone and the normal group. The combined extracts treated groups effectively ameliorated the sodium arsenite induced hepatotoxicity as judged.


  • rats
  • sodium arsenite
  • hepatotoxicity
  • Gongronema latifolium
  • Allium sativum
  • References


    1. Usoh, I. F., Akwa, N. E., Oyebadejo, S. A. and Ekpo, N. D. (2009).  Protective potential of Gongronema latifolium and Allium sativum extracts against hyperlipidaemia and oxidative stress in albino Wistar rats with sodium arsenite induced toxicity. World Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, 8 (12): 1-12.

    2. Awal, M. (2007). Detection of arsenic in the food chain and animal samples and study of the preventive measure using the best cost effective agricultural product based  spirulin against arseniasus in man and livestock . Annual Research Report (2006-2007), USDA-Bangladesh Collaborative Research.

    3. Amrit, Rajesh, K. and Taiprect, K. (2011). Mechanism pertaining to arsenite toxicity.   International Journal of Toxicolgy, 18 (2): 87-93.

    4. Suzuki, T. and Tsukamoto, I. (2006). Arsenite induces apoptosis in hepatocytes through an enhancement of the activation of Jun-N-terminal kinase and p38 mitogen-activated protein kinase caused by partial hepatectomy. Toxicology Letters, 165: 257-264. 

    5. Borek, C. (1998). Recent advances on the nutritional benefits accompanying the use of garlic as a supplement. New port Beach, 15-17.

    6. Amagase, H. (2006). Clarifying the real bioactive constituent of garlic. Journal of Nutrition, 136:716s-725s.

    7. Morebis, O., Fafunso, M. and Makinde, J. (2005). Membrane stabilizing activity: A possible mechanism of action for the anti-inflammatory property of Gongronema latifollium leaves in experimental arthritis. International Journal of Biomedical Health Science, 1 (2): 71-76.

    8. Edet, E., Atangwho, I., Akpanabiatu, M., Edet, T., Uboh, F. and  David-Oku, E. (2011). Effect of Gongronema latifollium leaf extract on some liver enzymes and protein levels in diabetic and non- diabetic rats. Journal of Pharmaceutical and Biomedical Sciences.  1 (5)104-107.

    9. Nickson, R. T., Mc Arthur, M. J., Shrestha, B., Kyaw-Myint and Lowry, D. (2005). Arsenic and other drinking water quality issues, Muzaffargarh District, Pakistan. Applied Geochemistry, 20(1): 55-68.

    10. Chen, S., Tsai, M., Wang, H., Yu, H. and Chang, L. (2007).  Involvement of substance P and neurogenic inflammation in arsenic- induced early vascular dysfunction. Toxicology of Science, 95:82-88.

    11. Reitman, S. and Frankel, S. ( 1957).  American Journal of Clinical Pathology, 28:56

    12. GSCC/DGKC- Recommendation of the German Society of Clinical Chemists/ Deutsche Gesellschft fu Klinische. (1972). Quantitative in vitro determination of alkaline phosphatase (ALP) in serum and plasma. Journal of Clinical Chemistry and Clinical Biochemistry, 10:182.

    13. Bancroft, J., stevens, A. and Turner, D. (1996). Theory and practice of histological techniques. 4th Edition, Churchill Livingstone, New York, Edinburgh, London, Melbourne, San Francisco, Tokyo.

    14. Kimura, A., Ishida, Y., Hayashi, T., Wada, T., Yakoyama, H.and Sugaya, T. (2006). Interferon-gamma plays protective roles in sodium arsenite- induced renal injury by up regulating intra renal multidrug resistance- associated protein 1 expression. American Journal of Pathology, 169:1118-1128.

    15. Rahman, M.., Chowdury, U., Mukherjee, S., Mondal, B., Paul, K., Lodh, D., Biswas, B., Chanda, C., Basu, G., Saha. K., Roy, S., Das, R., Palit, S.,Quamruzzaman, Q. and Chakraborti, D. (2001). Chronic arsenite toxicity in Bangladesh and West Bengal, India: a review and commentary. Journal of Toxicolgy and Clinical Toxicology, 39:683-700.

    16. Nandi, D., Patra, D. and Swarup, D. (2005). Effect of cysteine, methionine, ascorbic acid and thiamine on arsenic induced oxidative stress and biochemical alterations in rats. Toxicology, 211:26-35.

    17. Santra, A., Marti, A., Das, S., Lahiri, S., Charkaborty, S. and  Mazumder, D. (2000). Hepatic damage caused by chronic arsenic toxicity in experimental animals. Clinical Toxicology, 38(4) :395-405.

    18. Vahter, M. (2002). Mechanism of arsenic transformation. Toxicology, 18:211-221.

    19. Mazumder, D. (2005). Effect of chronic intake of arsenic- contaminated water on liver. Toxicology and Applied Pharmacology, 206 (2):169 -175.

    20. Lindberg, A., Kumar, R., Goessler, W., Thirumaran, R., Gurzau, E. and Koppova. K. (2007). Metabolism of low dose inorganic arsenic in central European population: influence of sex and genetic polymorphisms. Environmental Health Perspective, 115:1081-1086.

    21. AGA. (2002). Technical review on the evaluation of liver chemistry tests, Gastroenterology. 123:1367-1384.

    22. Christopher, E., Olivia, S., Wolfgang, S. (2007) Diagnostic criteria for acute liver failure due to Wilson disease. World Journal of Gastroenterology. 13:1711-1714.

    23. Yousef, I. El- Demerdash, M. and Radwan, F. (2008). Sodium arsenite induced biochemical perturbations in rats: Ameliorating effect of curcumin. Food and Clinical Toxicology, 48:3506-3511.

    24. Chowdhury, R., Dutta, A., Chaudhuri, S., Sharma, N., Giri, A., Chaudhuri, K.( 2008). Food chemistry. Toxicology, 46 (2):740-751.

    25. Nwangwu, C. Josiah, J., Abubakar, E., Ajeighe, O. and Akintola, A. (2011) .Comparative effect of aqueous and ethanolic extracts of Gongronema latifollium on serum kidney and liver biomarkers of normal male rats. Asian Journal of Biological sciences, 4(7):540-547.

    26. Sanjib, I. and Shattacharya, I. (2017). Medicinal plant and natural product in amelioration of arsenic toxicity: a short review. Pharmaceutical Biology, 55(1) :847.

    27.Islam, K., Haque, A., Karim, R., Fajol, A., Hossain, E., Salam, K., Ali, N., Saud, Z., Rahman, M., Karim, R., Sultana, P., Hossain, M., Akhand, A., Mandal, A., Miyatka, H., Himeno, S. and Hossain. (2001).Dose-response relationship between arsenic exposure and the serum enzymes for liver function tests in individuals exposed to arsenic. Environmental Health, 10(64): 1-11.